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Table 4 Model specification for propensity score matching using pooled 2014 & 2012 data (n = 468)

From: Perspectives of frontline health workers on Ghana’s National Health Insurance Scheme before and after community engagement interventions

Variables Variable definition Intervention Control Difference in means
N = 215 (46 %) N = 253 (54 %)
   Mean SD Mean SD  
Treatment variable       
 SCE/NSCE 1 if SCE clinic; 0 otherwise      
Outcome variablesa       
 Perception factor1 Perception factors (factor-analyzed) 1.92 0.67 1.94 0.61 0.02
 Perception factor2   2.43 0.58 2.46 0.52 0.03
 Perception factor3   2.55 0.70 2.53 0.65 −0.02
 Perception factor4   1.74 0.53 1.79 0.49 0.05
 Perception factor5   2.48 0.62 2.48 0.56 −0.00
Overall score   2.26 0.26 2.30 0.41 0.04
 Perceived impact1   2.09 0.56 1.94 0.57 −0.15**
 Perceived impact2   1.18 0.49 1.13 0.36 −0.05
 Perceived impact3   1.38 0.59 1.31 0.49 −0.07
Overall score   1.73 0.39 1.62 0.38 −0.11**
 Independent variables (co-variates)      
  Age Staff age in years 37.4 13.1 37.6 13.1 −0.13
  Gender 1 if male; 0 otherwise 0.40 0.49 0.30 0.46 0.09**
  Education 1 if secondary education; 0 otherwise 0.28 0.45 0.21 0.40 0.07*
  Profession 1 if non-clinical staff; 0 otherwise 0.26 0.44 0.24 0.44 0.02
  Salary 1 if is > GHC 1,300; 0 otherwise 0.07 0.26 0.10 0.30 −0.03
  Marital status 1 if married; 0 otherwise 0.44 0.50 0.45 0.50 −0.01
  Religion 1 if Christian; 0 otherwise 0.97 0.18 0.96 0.20 0.01
  Facility location 1 if GAR; 0 otherwise 0.51 0.50 0.52 0.50 0.01
  Facility ownership 1 if private clinic; 0 otherwise 0.59 0.49 0.47 0.50 −0.12**
  Insurance status 1 if insured; 0 otherwise 0.76 0.43 0.78 0.41 0.02
  1. Source: WOTRO-COHEiSION Ghana Project (2014); Note: SCE Systematic community engagement intervention, NSCE No Community engagement intervention; SD (standard deviation); *p < 0.1; **p < 0.05; aStaff perception variables factor-analyzed