Skip to main content

Table 1 Socioeconomic status in the community and the clinical sample

From: Household income determines access to specialized pediatric chronic pain treatment in Germany

  Clinical Sample Community Sample
  All All Children with any paina Children with recurrent painb Children with ≥ 1 physician contact due to recurrent painc
  n = 979 n = 14,455 n = 9901 n = 3340 n = 2244
Winkler-Index (range 3 – 21)      
 Mean 13.9 11.5 11.5 11.5 11.1
 SD 4.1 4.3 4.3 4.3 4.2
 Mean difference   -2.5*** −2.4*** −2.4*** −2.8***
 Effect Size (Cohen’s d)   0.6 0.6 0.6 0.7
SES status group      
 Low (3 – 8) 9.7 % 27.5 % 26.9 % 26.3 % 29.5 %
 Medium (9 – 14) 45.5 % 46.9 % 47.4 % 48.3 % 48.4 %
 High (15 – 21) 44.8 % 25.6 % 25.7 % 25.4 % 22.2 %
 p #   <0.001 <0.001 <0.001 <0.001
  1. comparisons were calculated for all subgroups of the community sample with the clinical sample
  2. ***p<0.001 (Student’s t-test). #p-value for Mann-Whitney-U test
  3. aAny pain: children and adolescents reporting any pain during the last three months
  4. bRecurrent pain: children and adolescents reporting recurrent pain, i.e., pain that occurs at least once in a month for more than the previous three months
  5. c≥1 Physician contact due to recurrent pain: children and adolescents who reported at least one physician contact due to their recurrent pain problem