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Table 1 Patients’ demographics, labor force and clinical characteristics in each EDSS level

From: Cost analysis of multiple sclerosis in Brazil: a cross-sectional multicenter study

  Mild (EDSS 0–3) (N = 84) Moderate (EDSS 4–6.5) (N = 91) Severe (EDSS 7–9) (N = 33) TOTAL (N = 210)a p-values*
  N (%) N (%) N (%) N (%)  
Age (years) (Mean [SD]) 36.8 (10.1) 41.2 (11.4) 49.2 (10.9) 40.7 (11.5) <0.001
Gender      0.056
 Male 18 (21) 30 (33) 14 (42) 62 (29)
 Female 66 (79) 61 (67) 19 (58) 148 (70)
Educational level      0.044
 Never been to school
 Elementary schoolb 11 (13) 14 (16) 10 (30) 35 (16)
 High schoolb 34 (41) 53 (58) 13 (39) 100 (48)
 Higher educationb 31 (37) 21 (23) 8 (24) 61 (29)
 Post-Graduationb 8 (10) 3 (3) 1 (3) 12 (6)
 No information 1 (3) 1 (1)
Living      0.004
 Alone 8 (9) 2 (6) 11 (5)
 Family/Spouse 84 (100) 83 (91) 30 (91) 198 (94)
 Home support or asylum 1 (3) 1 (1)
Monthly income (USD$) (Mean [SD]) 817.96 (899.18) 748.93 (790.96) 904.50 (994.75) 806.47 (869.39) 0.8925
MS type      <0.001
 Relapse-remitting 84 (100) 75 (82) 5 (15) 166 (79)
 Secondary progressive 16 (18) 28 (85) 44 (21)
Diagnosis time (years) (Mean [SD]) 5.2 (4.4) 8.2 (5.8) n.a. 7.9 (6.2)  
Comorbities 64 (76) 79 (87) 30 (91) 173 (82) 0.074
Relapses (Y/N) 41 (49) 52 (57) 8 (24) 102 (49) 0.004
 Number of relapses in the last year (Mean [SD]) 1.5 (1.0) 1.7 (1.0) 1.4 (0.5) 1.6 (1.0)  
Employed/Self-employed 51 (31) 17 (19) 0 (0) 70 (34) <0.001
Sick leave due to Multiple Sclerosisc 15 (29) 11 (65) n.a. 26 (37) 0.089
 Sick leave duration (days) (Mean [SD]) 170.5 (258.4) 90.9 (75.0) n.a. 141.7 (198.7)  
Early retirement by disease or disablement 9 (11) 48 (53) 21 (64) 78 (37) <0.001
 Time between diagnosis and retirement (years) (Mean [SD]) 4.9 (5.1) 3.5 (3.9) 4.2 (4.2) 3.9 (4.1)  
 Age at retirement (years) (Mean [SD]) 42 (12.0) 38 (8.9) 39 (9.9) 39 (9.5)  
Health-related Quality of Life (EQ-5D)      
Mobility      <0.001
 no problem 56 (66.7) 7 (7.7) 64 (30)
 some problem 28 (33.3) 83 (91.2) 22 (66.7) 134 (64)
 serious problem 1 (1.1) 11 (33.3) 12 (6)
Self-care      <0.001
 no problem 77 (91.7) 51 (56.0) 4 (12.1) 133 (63)
 some problem 7 (8.3) 40 (44.0) 18 (54.5) 66 (31)
 serious problem 11 (33.3) 11 (5)
Usual activities      <0.001
 no problem 52 (61.9) 17 (18.7) 2 (6.1) 72 (34)
 some problem 31 (36.9) 68 (74.7) 15 (45.5) 115 (55)
 serious problem 1 (1.2) 6 (6.6) 16 (48.5) 23 (11)
Pain/discomfort      0.001
 no problem 39 (46.4) 21 (23.1) 7 (21.2) 68 (32)
 some problem 43 (51.2) 57 (62.6) 26 (78.8) 126 (60)
 serious problem 2 (2.4) 12 (13.2) 15 (7)
 no information 1 (1.1) 1 (1)
Anxiety/depression      0.148
 no problem 35 (41.7) 30 (33.0) 15 (45.5) 80 (38)
 some problem 42 (50.0) 45 (49.5) 17 (51.5) 106 (51)
 serious problem 7 (8.3) 16 (17.6) 1 (3.0) 24 (11)
 EQ-VAS (Mean [SD]) 82.5 (13.7) 65.8 (18.5) 59.1 (17.5) 71.6 (18.9) <0.001
Impact of fatigue on daily living (MFIS-BR)      <0.001
 Absent 56 (67) 33 (36) 11 (33) 102 (49)
 Present - Low 17 (20) 34 (37) 16 (48) 67 (32)
 Present - High 11 (13) 24 (26) 6 (18) 41 (19)
  1. n.a. not applicable; EDSS Expanded Disability Status Scale; SD Standard Deviation; MS Multiple Sclerosis; Y/N Yes/No
  2. *Pearson Chi-square test to categorical variables or ANOVA/Kruskal-Wallis test to continuous variables
  3. aFor two patients information about EDSS level was unavailable and their data are included only in total analysis
  4. bComplete/incomplete
  5. cAmong those that reported to be currently working (EDSS 0–3, N = 51; EDSS 4–6.5, N = 17; EDSS 7–9, N = 0; Total, N = 70)