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Table 2 Association of total charges (in $) and components with independent variables

From: Distribution and predictors of emergency department charges: the case of a tertiary hospital in Lebanon

Variable Total charges Solutions Pharmacy Laboratory Physician Facility Radiology
  Mean SD Mean SD Mean SD Mean SD Mean SD Mean SD Mean SD
Gender               
 Female ref   ref   ref   ref   ref   ref   ref  
 Male 13.0 1.9 1.7 .5 2.9 .4 −1.4 .6 3.0 .4 .7 .2 5.5 .9
P-value <0.001   0.001   <0.001   0.017   <0.001   <0.001   <0.001  
Age               
 0–18 ref   ref   ref   ref   ref   ref   ref  
 19–29 −7.0 2.6 3.7 .7 −5.3 .6 −6.3 .8 −17.3 .6 -.2@ .3 20.5 1.3
 30–60 58.4 2.4 7.5 .6 −4.8 .5 18.3 .8 −5.8 .5 2.6 .3 39.7 1.2
 60+ 188.4 2.8 22.4 .7 −2.1 .6 62.9 .9 −5.0 .6 7.8 .3 84.2 1.4
P-value <0.001   <0.001   <0.001   <0.001   <0.001   <0.001   <0.001  
ESI               
 1 411.4 16.9 127.2 4.3 12.8 3.5 64.7 5.2 7.4& 3.7 30.9 1.8 113.0 8.4
 2 272.2 7.9 38.5 2.1 8.5 1.7 90.4 2.5 5.5 1.8 8.4 .9 102.5 3.9
 3 151.8 6.5 17.7 1.7 3.4 1.4 55.8 2.1 8.4 1.5 4.3 .7 57.0 3.3
 4 37.0 6.8 2.5* 1.8 1.1* 1.5 4.8* 2.1 10.8 1.5 1.5* .8 19.1 3.4
 5 ref   ref   ref   ref   ref   ref   ref  
P-value <0.001   <0.001   <0.001   <0.001   <0.001   <0.001   <0.001  
Disposition               
 Admitted 248.2 2.5 31.4 .6 4.3 .5 79.4 .8 −4.2 .5 -.3! .3 78.5 1.3
 AMA 91.2 5.2 10.0 1.4 .13# 1.2 52.9 1.7 −7.6 1.2 3.7 .6 30.1 2.6
 Discharged ref   ref   ref   ref   ref   ref   Ref  
P-value <0.001   <0.001   <0.001   <0.001   <0.001   <0.001   <0.001  
  1. * ESI4 vs ESI5 p-value = 0.168 for Solutions, and p-value = 0.460 for Pharmacy, p-value = 0.025 for Laboratory p-value = 0.055 for facility, & ESI1 vs ESI5 p-value = 0.042 for Physician, # AMA vs Discharged p-value = 0.917 for Pharmacy @ Age 19–29 vs 0–18 p-value =0.474 for facility, ! Admitted vs Discharged p-value =0.332 for facility