Skip to main content


Table 3 Overview of items and concepts in the MAINtAIN

From: Development and usability of the MAINtAIN, an inventory assessing nursing staff behavior to optimize and maintain functional activity among nursing home residents: a mixed-methods approach

MAINtAIN-behaviors: Nursing behaviors to optimize function
Items Nursing behaviors related to type of activity
Item 1 to 8: Nursing behavior related to activities of daily living
Item 9 to 14: Nursing behaviors related to household activities
Item 15 to 19: Nursing behaviors related to miscellaneous activities
MAINtAIN-barriers: Barriers and facilitators related to behaviors to optimize function, by level
Item Residents Item Social context
1. Relevance for residents B 19. Collaboration with experts B
2. Capabilities residents B 20. Social support of colleagues F
3. Visibility of results F 21. Support of manager F
4. Residents’ fear B 22. Referral to responsibility F
5. Attention seeking behavior B 23. Communication within team F
6. Residents’ and families’ expectations regarding care B 24. Expectations of colleagues F
7. Attitude residents B 25. Care routines B
8. Learned dependency B    
Item Professionals Item Organizational & economic context
9. Prioritizing time over care B 26. Organizational readiness B
10. Risks for residents B 27. Presence of expertise F
11. Task perception: task of physiotherapist B 28. Educational opportunities F
12. Sense of importance F 29. Rules and regulations B
13. Task perception: taking responsibility F 30. Availability of resources F
14. Outcome expectations B 31. Priority within organization F
15. Availability of expertise F 32. Staffing level B
16. Conflict: time consuming B 33. Time F
17. Sense of difficulty B    
18. Self-efficacy F    
  1. B item formulated as barrier
  2. F item formulated as facilitator
  3. Levels of barriers and facilitators are derived from Grol and Wensing [13]
  4. Additional file 1 includes the MAINtAIN