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Table 2 Mean scores at 15-month follow-up for mean outcome variables and total costs (in euros) per patient per treatment group

From: Is exposure in vivo cost-effective for chronic low back pain? A trial-based economic evaluation

  Mean (SD) Mean difference (95 % CI)
  GA (n = 31) EXP (n = 31) EXP versus GA
QBPDSb 40.42 (22.34) 38.19 (20.84) −2.23 (-13.20 to 8.75)
Utility (SF36)b 0.68 (0.14) 0.66 (0.14) −0.15 (-0.08 to 0.05)
QALYb 0.82 (0.12) 0.83 (0.13) 0.01 (-0.6 to 0.07)
Treatment costs 1,969.39 (0) 2,166.84 (0) 197.45
Health care costsa 1,841.72 (595.12) 1,011.67 (220.68) −830 (-2,209 to 247)
P & F costsa 5,347.25 (1229.70) 5,012.60 (1302.51) −335 (-3,708 to 3,320)
Productivity lossa 4,002.20 (1484.43) 2,502.57 (1055.98) −1,500 (-4,987 to 1,907)
Total costs a 13,477.71 (2450.28) 10,843.50 (1747.89) −2,643 (-8,535 to 3,058)
  1. GA graded activity, EXP gradual exposure, QBPDS Quebec Back Pain Disability Score, QALYs quality-adjusted life year, P & F costs patient and family costs
  2. aDifference in mean (95 % confidence interval) derived using bootstrapping (1,000 replications)
  3. bDifference in mean (95 % confidence interval) derived using independent samples T-test