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Table 3 Patient characteristics related to >3 ED presentations in the last year of life for people aged 18 years or more in the Greater Sydney Area of NSW in 2007 (n = 28,484)a

From: Acute hospital-based services used by adults during the last year of life in New South Wales, Australia: a population-based retrospective cohort study

   >3 ED presentations (18 %)
  No. of deaths n (% within category) Adjusted OR (95 % CI)
Age at death    p < 0.0001
 18–59 3624 775 (21) 1.04 (0.94–1.14)
 60–79 9607 1968 (20) 1.00 (reference)
 80–89 10,269 1751 (17) 0.87 (0.81–0.94)
 90+ 4984 586 (12) 0.61 (0.55–0.68)
Sex    p < 0.0001
 Female 14,208 2263 (16) 1.00 (reference)
 Male 14,276 2817 (20) 1.18 (1.11–1.26)
Country of birth    p < 0.0001
 Australia 18,924 3191 (17) 1.00 (reference)
 Other 9473 1889 (20) 1.14 (1.07–1.22)
 Unknown 87 0 (0) Not included
Place of residenceb    p = 0.01
 Major cities 26,830 4725 (18) 1.00 (reference)
 Inner regional 1651 355 (22) 1.18 (1.04–1.34)
 Unknown 3 0 (0) Not included
Socioeconomic statusc    p < 0.0001
 Most disadvantaged quintile 4394 1002 (23) 1.80 (1.63–1.99)
 Quintile 2 4808 1044 (22) 1.69 (1.53–1.87)
 Quintile 3 4392 767 (17) 1.35 (1.22–1.50)
 Quintile 4 6958 1251 (18) 1.40 (1.27–1.53)
 Least disadvantaged quintile 7884 1016 (13) 1.00 (reference)
 Unknown 48 0 (0) Not included
Cause of death    p < 0.0001
 Circulatory system 9462 1378 (15) 1.00 (reference)
 Cancer 8547 1743 (20) 1.33 (1.23–1.45)
 Other known cause 9626 1805 (19) 1.30 (1.20–1.40)
 Cause not known 849 154 (18) Not included
  1. aThis group represents the top quartile of the distribution for ED presentations (>3) during the last year of life
  2. bBased on Australian Bureau of Statistics’ Accessibility Remoteness Index for Australia
  3. cUsing population-based quintiles of the Australian Bureau of Statistics’ index of relative disadvantage