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Table 2 Detailed list and description of the main focus of each study

From: Type 2 diabetes patients’ and providers’ differing perspectives on medication nonadherence: a qualitative meta-synthesis

AUTHOR DATE TITLE COUNTRY METHODOLOGY PARTICIPANTS MAIN RESEARCH QUESTION
Ab et al. 2009 Reasons of general practitioners for not prescribing lipid-lowering medication to patients with diabetes: a qualitative study Netherlands Qualitative; Interviews 7 family physicians What factors underlie GPs’ decisions not to prescribe lipid-lowering medications to patients with T2DM?
Adili et al. 2012 Inside the PAR group: The group dynamics of women learning to live with diabetes Australia Qualitative (participatory action research); Interviews, group discussion 11 patients with T2DM, women, older population What is the value of group learning in helping women to live with T2DM?
Agarwal et al. 2008 GPs’ approach to insulin prescribing in older patients: a qualitative study Ontario, Canada Qualitative (grounded theory); Interviews 21 family physicians What are the themes that reflect factors that influence the prescribing of insulin when treating older patients with T2DM?
Barko et al. 2011 Perceptions of diabetes symptoms and self-management strategies: a cross-cultural comparison USA Qualitative (descriptive); Interviews 20 patients with T2DM, Slavic immigrants and White non-immigrants, women, older population What are the similarities and differences between perceived symptoms of T2DM and self-management strategies for Russian-speaking Slavic immigrant American women and non-Hispanic, non-immigrant White American women?
Barton et al. 2005 The diabetes experiences of Aboriginal people living in a rural Canadian community Canada Qualitative (descriptive); Interviews 8 patients with T2DM, Aboriginal What are the experiences of Nuxalk people living with the challenges of T2DM, and how can these experiences inform health services in culturally specific ways?
Bhattacharya et al. 2012 Psychosocial Impacts of Type 2 Diabetes Self-Management in a Rural African-American Population USA Qualitative (grounded theory); Interviews 31 patients with T2DM, African American What are participant motivations for making health behavior changes?
Bhattacharya et al. 2012b Self-management of type 2 diabetes among African Americans in the Arkansas Delta: a strengths perspective in social-cultural context USA Qualitative (Grounded theory); Interviews 31 patients with T2DM, African American What are the underlying factors influencing the promotion of T2DM?
Bissell et al. 2004 From compliance to concordance: barriers to accomplishing a re-framed model of health care interactions UK Qualitative (Grounded theory); Interviews 21 patients, Pakistani What are the barriers to accomplishing a re-framed model of interactions between HPs and patients?
Bogatean et al. 2004 People with type 2 diabetes facing the reality of starting insulin therapy: factors involved in psychological insulin resistance Romania Qualitative (phenomenology); Interviews 18 patients with T2DM What are the factors involved in psychological insulin resistance?
Borgsteede et al. 2011 Factors related to high and low levels of drug adherence according to patients with type 2 diabetes Netherlands Qualitative; Interviews 20 patients with T2DM What are the factors related to high and low levels of drug adherence according to patients with T2DM in primary care?
Borovoy Hine 2008 Managing the unmanageable: elderly Russian Jewish émigrés and the biomedical culture of diabetes care USA Qualitative; Interviews 13 patients with T2DM, elderly Russian Jewish émigrés; 2 healthcare providers; 5 other What is the apparent resistance of elderly Russian Jewish émigrés to the dominant U.S. biomedical model of diabetes treatment?
Broom & Whittaker 2004 Controlling diabetes, controlling diabetics: moral language in the management of diabetes type 2 Australia Qualitative; Interviews 119 patients with T2DM; 56 service providers How is moral identity negotiated (through a language of control, surveillance, discipline, and responsibility) in the efforts to integrate, live with, and control T2DM?
Brown, J et al. 2002 The role of patient, physician and systemic factors in the management of type 2 diabetes mellitus Ontario, Canada Qualitative; Focus groups 30 Family physicians What are the contextual dimensions and subsequent interactions that contribute to a lack of adherence in the application of guidelines for T2DM?
Brown, K et al. 2007 Health beliefs of African-Caribbean people with type 2 diabetes: a qualitative study UK Qualitative; Interviews 16 patients with T2DM, African-Caribbean How do health beliefs influence the way African–Caribbean people with T2DM manage their illness?
Burke et al. 2006 Patients with diabetes speak: Exploring the implications ofpatients’ perspectives for their diabetes appointments USA Qualitative (grounded theory); Focus groups 8 patients with T2DM How might physicians use information about patients’ perspectives to improve patients’ self-management of T2DM and thereby their glycemic control?
Cardol et al. 2012 People with mild to moderate intellectual disability talking about their diabetes and how they manage Netherlands Qualitative; Interviews 17 patients with T1DM + T2DM, Intellectual Disability How do people with Intellectual Disability experience having diabetes and how do they manage the condition? How can understanding this information support in the engagement of self-management activities?
Connor et al. 2012 Listening to patients’ voices: linguistic indicators related to diabetes self-management USA Qualitative (linguistic analysis); Interviews 43 patients with T2DM What are the most prominent linguistic indicators of two constructs that have been found to be important factors in models of health self-management: control orientation and agency?
Coronado et al. 2004 Attitudes and beliefs among Mexican Americans about type 2 diabetes USA Qualitative; Focus groups 42 patients with T2DM, Mexican Americans Knowing that Hispanics in the United States are at a disproportionately high-risk for T2DM, what are the attitudes and beliefs about diabetes among this group?
Corser et al. 2010 Contemporary Adult Diabetes Mellitus Management Perceptions USA Qualitative; Group interviews 44 patients with T2DM How do patients’ self-management beliefs and practices affect the nature of key diabetes care office visit decisions?
Courtenay et al. 2010 The views of patients with diabetes about nurse prescribing. UK Qualitative; Interviews 41 patients with T1DM + T2DM What are the views of patients receiving prescriptions from Nurse Practitioners and what are the advantages and disadvantages of NP’s prescribing this medication?
Feil et al. 2011 Impact of dementia on caring for patients’ diabetes USA Qualitative (grounded theory); Focus groups 21 caregivers of patients with co-morbid T2DM and dementia What are caregivers’ challenges and quality-of-life issues managing diabetes in patients with dementia.
Felea et al. 2013 Perceptions of Life Burdens and of the Positive Side of Life in a Group of Elderly Patients with Diabetes: A Qualitative Analysis through Grounded Theory Romania Qualitative (grounded theory); Interviews 57 patients with T2DM, older population What are the main concerns of frail elderly people diagnosed with diabetes in terms of the perception of their burdens and their distinctive views on the positive side of life?
Frandsen & Kristensen 2002 Diet and lifestyle in type 2 diabetes: the patient’s perspective Multiple Countries Qualitative; Group interviews 123 patients with T2DM According to patients across four European countries and the United States, what are the issues and barriers related to diet, lifestyle, and medication adherence?
Garrett & Martin 2003 The Asheville Project: participants’ perceptions of factors contributing to the success of a patient self-management diabetes program USA Qualitative; Focus groups and interviews 21 patients with T1DM + T2DM; 4 pharmacists; 1 diabetes educator; 6 project managers What are patients’, providers’, and managers’ perceptions of the factors that contributed to the success of the Asheville Project: a Patient Self-Management Diabetes Program?
Gazmararian et al. 2009 Perception of Barriers to Self-care Management Among Diabetic Patients USA Qualitative; Focus groups 35 patients with unspecified DM, African-American, economically disadvantaged What are the individual, educational, and system barriers that limit low-income diabetes patients’ ability to achieve optimal diabetes self-management?
George & Thomas 2010 Lived experience of diabetes among older, rural people USA Qualitative (phenomenology); Interviews 10 patients with unspecified DM, elderly population, rural What are the experiences and perceptions of self-management of diabetes as narrated by older people diagnosed with insulin-dependent diabetes living in a rural area?
Goering & Mathias 2010 Coping with chronic illness: information use and treatment adherence among people with diabetes USA Qualitative (content analysis); Interviews 21 patients with T2DM How can we understand the complex relationship among information usage, medication adherence, and disease management in people with T2DM?
Gorawara-Bhat et al. 2008 Communicating with older diabetes patients: Self-management and social comparison USA Qualitative (grounded theory); Interviews 28 patients T2DM, elderly population As healthcare goals and self-management behaviors are frequently shaped through social comparisons with peers/family members, what is the role of social comparison in older patients with T2DM?
Grant et al. 2011 Diabetes oral medication initiation and intensification: patient views compared with current treatment guidelines USA Qualitative (content analysis); Focus groups 50 patients with T2DM What are patient perceptions about medication management principles underlying American Diabetes Association (ADA) published treatment algorithms?
Guell 2012 Self-care at the margins: meals and meters in migrants’ diabetes tactics Germany Ethnographic fieldwork; semi-structured interviews and participant observation 17 healthcare providers; 7 patients with T2DM, Turkish migrants What are Turkish migrants’ everyday practices of diabetes self-management in Berlin, Germany?
Hayes et al. 2006 Understanding diabetes medications from the perspective of patients with type 2 diabetes: prerequisite to medication concordance USA Qualitative (content analysis); Focus groups 138 patients with T2DM What are patient’s perceptions of T2DM treatment, specifically related to medication experiences?
Heisler et al. 2009 Participants’ Assessments of the Effects of a Community Health Worker Intervention on Their Diabetes Self-Management and Interactions with Healthcare Providers USA Qualitative; Interviews 40 patients with T2DM, African-American and Latino How does the program influence participants’ diabetes care and interactions with healthcare providers, and what gaps, if any, does it address?
Helsel et al. 2005 Chronic illness and Hmong shamans USA Qualitative (grounded theory); Interviews 11 patients with T2DM or hypertension, Hmong Shaman How do Hmong Shamans’ understand and manage their chronic illness, and how can this perspective be used as a gateway to understanding how the broader Hmong American community perceive these conditions?
Henderson 2010 Divergent models of diabetes among American Indian elders USA Qualitative (non-random intensity sample); Interviews 30 patients with T2DM, American Indian elders What are the belief systems about diabetes in American Indian elders, and what are the effects of culture on care-seeking, adherence, and diabetes self-care?
Hinder & Greenhalgh 2012 “This does my head in”. Ethnographic study of self-management by people with diabetes UK Ethnographic study; Shadowing, interviews, observation 30 people with T1DM + T2DM Why is self-management of diabetes challenging for some, and how can research produce a richer understanding of how people live with diabetes?
Ho & James 2006 Cultural barriers to initiating insulin therapy in Chinese people with type 2 diabetes living in Canada Ontario, Canada Qualitative (framework analysis); Interviews 5 patients with T2DM, Chinese-Canadian, insulin dependent What are some of the cultural barriers (as influenced by factors specific to the Chinese culture) to initiating insulin therapy among Chinese individuals with T2DM living in Canada?
Holmstrom & Rosenqvist 2005 Misunderstandings about illness and treatment among patients with type 2 diabetes Sweden Phenomenology; Video recordings and transcribed patient reflections 18 patients with T2DM, Swedish What are the specific misunderstandings that Swedish patients with T2DM have about their illness and treatment, and how can health care services support rather than obstruct self-care and learning?
Hornsten et al. 2011 A model of integration of illness and self-management in type 2 diabetes Sweden Qualitative (content analysis); Narrative interview 44 patients with T2DM, Swedish-speaking What is the process of illness integration and self-management among people with T2DM?
Hu et al. 2012 The Meaning of Insulin to Hispanic Immigrants With Type 2 Diabetes and Their Families USA Qualitative (content analysis); Focus groups 43 patients with T2DM, Hispanic What is the meaning of Insulin among a sample of Hispanic immigrants with T2DM and their family members/significant others, and what strategies and further research are necessary to dispel negative perceptions and facilitate positive experiences?
Huang et al. 2005 Self-reported goals of older patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus USA Qualitative (grounded theory); Interviews 28 patients with T2DM, elderly population What are the self-reported healthcare goals, factors influencing these goals, and self-care practices of older patients with T2DM, and how can this knowledge support providers in communicating with older patients about complex medical decisions?
Hunt et al. 2012 The changing face of chronic illness management in primary care: a qualitative study of underlying influences and unintended outcomes USA Qualitative; Interviews and observations 58 clinicians and 70 patients with T2DM and hypertension, observations of 107 clinical consultations with 12 clinicians Due to the recent and dramatic increase in the diagnosis and pharmaceutical management of common chronic illnesses, how can qualitative data collected in primary care clinics help assess how these trends play out in clinical care?
Jeavons et al. 2006 Patients with poorly controlled diabetes in primary care: healthcare clinicians’ beliefs and attitudes UK Qualitative; Focus groups 23 healthcare providers (family physicians and nurses) What are doctors’ and nurses’ attitudes and beliefs about treating patients with T2DM with less than ideal glycemic control while receiving maximal oral treatment in primary care?
Jenkins et al. 2011 Participants’ experiences of intensifying insulin therapy during the Treating to Target in Type 2 Diabetes (4-T) trial: qualitative interview study UK Qualitative (grounded theory); Interviews 41 patients with T2DM, insulin dependent What are participants’ experiences of intensifying insulin therapy during the Treating to Target in Type 2 Diabetes (4-T) trial, and specifically, how do participants’ manage anxiety around increased likelihood of injecting insulin in public places?
Klein & Lippa 2012 Assuming control after system failure: type II diabetes self-management USA Qualitative (cognitive task analysis); Interviews, document review, non-participant observation Web users and interviewees with T2DM, unknown number How do patients bridge the gap between existing education programs and the real, dynamic challenges of diabetes self-management?
Klein & Meininger 2004 Self Management of Medication and Diabetes: Cognitive Control USA Qualitative (cognitive task analysis); Interviews T2DM patients, unknown number What self-management problems do Type 2 diabetic patients face?
Lamberts et al. 2010 The role of the community pharmacist in fulfilling information needs of patients starting oral anti-diabetics Netherlands Qualitative; Interviews and focus groups 42 patients with T2DM What are the information needs of patients who have recently started treatment with oral anti-diabetics and what are the opportunities for pharmacy regarding the provision of information for patients with T2DM?
Lawton et al. 2005 Perceptions and experiences of taking oral hypoglycaemic agents among people of Pakistani and Indian origin: qualitative study UK Qualitative (grounded theory); Interviews 32 patients with T2DM, British Indian or Pakistani What are British Pakistani and British Indian patients’ perceptions and experiences of taking oral hypoglycemic agents (OHAs), and how does ambivalence toward Western drugs influence medication adherence?
Lawton et al. 2008 Patients’ perceptions and experiences of taking oral glucose-lowering agents: a longitudinal qualitative study UK Qualitative (longitudinal); Interviews 20 patients with T2DM What are patient expectations, perceptions and experiences of oral glucose-lowering agents (OGLAs), including their reasons for taking/not taking these drugs as prescribed and what recommendations exist for developing interventions to improve OGLA adherence?
Lee et al. 2007 The development and evaluation of written medicines information for type 2 diabetes Australia Qualitative; Interviews 24 patients with T2DM Using the ‘Consumer Involvement Cycle’ to investigate consumer perspectives and the need for medication information for patients with T2DM, how can this information be used to develop appropriate WMI for the T2DM population?
Lippa & Klein 2008 Portraits of patient cognition: how patients understand diabetes self-care USA Qualitative; Interviews 18 patients with T2DM How do T2DM patients with low, moderate, and good glycemic control conceptualize self-care?
Lippa et al. 2008 Everyday expertise: cognitive demands in diabetes self-management USA Qualitative (cognitive task analysis); Interviews 18 patients with T2DM What is the relationship between decision-making and successful diabetes self-management?
Lutfey 2005 On practices of ‘good doctoring’: reconsidering the relationship between provider roles and patient adherence USA Ethnography; observations of patient-practitioner consultations, Qualitative; semi-structured interviews 170 patients with unspecified DM; 25 practitioners How do medical practitioners conceptualise, tailor their actions, and strategically enact practices with specific patients in order to maximise their adherence to treatment regimens?
Lynch et al. 2012 Concepts of diabetes self-management in Mexican American and African American low-income patients with diabetes USA Qualitative (grounded theory); Focus groups 84 patients with T2DM, African American and Mexican American How do low-income minority conceptualize diabetes self-management and to what extent do patient beliefs correspond to evidence-based recommendations?
Mathew et al. 2012 Self-management experiences among men and women with type 2 diabetes mellitus: a qualitative analysis Ontario, Canada Qualitative; Telephone interviews and focus groups 35 patients with T2DM What are the differences in diabetes self-management - specifically needs, barriers and challenges among men and women living with T2DM?
Mayberry & Osborn 2012 Family support, medication adherence, and glycemic control among adults with type 2 diabetes USA Mixed method: Qualitative; Focus groups; quantitative; Surveys 45 patients with T2DM (n = 61 for surveys) Does the perception of family members’ knowledge about diabetes have a positive or negative association with patients’ diabetes-specific supportive behaviors and medical adherence?
McSharry et al. 2013 ‘The chicken and egg thing’: cognitive representations and self-management of multimorbidity in people with diabetes and depression UK Qualitative; Interviews 17 patients with T1DM + T2DM and depression How do patients perceive and report the impact and management of multimorbid representations of diabetes and depression?
Mishra et al. 2011 Adherence to Medication Regimens among Low-Income Patients with Multiple Comorbid Chronic Conditions USA Qualitative; Focus groups 50 patients with T1DM + T2DM, 40+ years of age, 2+ chronic conditions What are the facilitators and barriers for adherence to multiple medications among low-income patients with comorbid chronic physical and mental health conditions?
Mohan et al. 2013 Illustrated medication instructions as a strategy to improve medication management among Latinos: a qualitative analysis USA Qualitative; Focus groups and interviews 38 patients with T2DM, Latino What are the barriers to effective medication management for Latino patients with diabetes, and what strategies could help improve medication management among this vulnerable population?
Morris et al. 2005 Experiences of people with type 2 diabetes who have changed from oral medication to self-administered insulin injections: a qualitative study UK Qualitative; Interviews 6 patients with T2DM, older population What are the lived subjective experiences, expectations, and impact for patients who have recently started insulin?
Morrow et al. 2008 Integrating diabetes self-management with the health goals of older adults: a qualitative exploration. USA Qualitative; Interviews 24 patients with T2DM, hypertension, and at least one other chronic comorbidity, elderly population; 10 caregivers What are the life and health goals of older adults with diabetes, and what are the factors that influence their diabetes self-management?
Moser et al. 2008 Self-management of type 2 diabetes mellitus: a qualitative investigation from the perspective of participants in a nurse-led, shared-care programme in the Netherlands Netherlands Qualitative (grounded theory); Interviews 15 patients with T2DM, elderly population How do patients with T2DM experience self-management in a nurse-led shared care program?
Nagelkerk et al. 2006 Perceived barriers and effective strategies to diabetes self-management USA Qualitative (content analysis); Focus groups 24 patients with T2DM, rural What do patients perceive as barriers and effective strategies for self-management in a rural setting?
Nair et al. 2007 “I take what I think works for me”: a qualitative study to explore patient perception of diabetes treatment benefits and risks. Ontario, Canada Qualitative (grounded theory); Interviews 18 patients with T2DM What is the experience of benefit and risk assessment for people with T2DM when making treatment decisions?
Noakes 2010 Perceptions of black African and African-Caribbean people regarding insulin UK Qualitative; Focus groups 13 patients with T2DM, African and African-Caribbean What are black African and African-Caribbean adults’ perceptions of insulin treatment?
Onwudiwe et al. 2011 Barriers to self-management of diabetes: a qualitative study among low-income minority diabetics USA Qualitative; Focus groups 31 patients with T2DM, predominantly African-American, low income What do low income minority patients perceive as barriers to self-management?
Parry et al. 2006 Issues of cause and control in patient accounts of Type 2 diabetes. UK Qualitative (discourse analysis); Interviews 40 patients with T2DM How do patients view diabetes services and disease causation and management, and what are the implications of these beliefs for clinical management?
Patel et al. 2012 Insulin initiation and management in people with Type 2 diabetes in an ethnically diverse population: the healthcare provider perspective. UK Qualitative; Interviews 14 healthcare professionals who care for patients with T2DM What are barriers to prescribing insulin to multi-ethnic adults (mostly South Asian setting) with T2DM?
Phillips 2007 Starting patients on insulin therapy: diabetes nurse specialist views UK Qualitative (exploratory); Interviews 4 diabetes nurse specialists What are the challenges of converting patients with T2DM to insulin therapy?
Rahim-Williams 2011 Beliefs, behaviors, and modifications of type 2 diabetes self-management among African American women USA Qualitative; Interviews, participant observation, self-management questionnaire 25 patients with T2DM, women, African American What are the health beliefs and behaviours affecting self-management of African American women with T2DM?
Raphael et al. 2012 A toxic combination of poor social policies and programmes, unfair economic arrangements and bad politics: the experiences of poor Canadians with Type 2 diabetes Ontario, Canada Qualitative; Interviews 60 patients with T2DM, low income What are the day to day experiences of low income adults with T2DM living in poverty?
Rayman & Ellison 2004 Home alone: the experience of women with type 2 diabetes who are new to intensive control USA Qualitative (Grounded theory); Interviews 14 patients with T2DM, women What are the early experiences of women learning intensive self-management of T2DM?
Renfrew et al. 2013 Barriers to Care for Cambodian Patients with Diabetes: Results from a Qualitative Study USA Qualitative; Focus groups 15 patients with T2DM, Cambodian; 25 clinicians; 5 bilingual Khmer staff What are potential barriers to care for Cambodian patients with T2DM?
Rise et al. 2013 Making and Maintaining Lifestyle Changes after Participating in Group Based Type 2 Diabetes Self-Management Educations: A Qualitative Study. Norway Qualitative (Phenomenological); Focus groups and interviews 23 patients with T2DM How do patients make and maintain lifestyle changes after participating in group-based self-management education for T2DM?
Shaw et al. 2013 Resources, roadblocks and turning points: a qualitative study of American Indian/Alaska Native adults with type 2 diabetes USA Qualitative; Focus groups and interviews 13 patients with T2DM, Alaska Native and American Indian What are the perceived psychosocial needs and barriers to self-management for Alaskan Native and American Indian adults with T2DM?
Stack et al. 2008 A qualitative exploration of multiple medicines beliefs in co-morbid diabetes and cardiovascular disease UK Qualitative (modified grounded theory); Interviews 19 patients with comorbid T2DM and cardiovascular disease What are the perceptions of multiple medications expressed by patients managing co-morbid T2DM and cardiovascular disease?
Thorlby et al. 2011 Clinicians’ views of an intervention to reduce racial disparities in diabetes outcomes USA Qualitative; Interviews 12 physicians; 4 nurse practitioners; 1 physician assistant What do primary care practitioners understand about racial disparities among patients with T2DM and what are the perceptions of a cultural competency intervention?
Tjia et al. 2008 Beneath the surface: discovering the unvoiced concerns of older adults with type 2 diabetes mellitus USA Qualitative; Interviews 22 patients with T2DM, older population, at least 5 medications What are the concerns of older patients with T2DM about their medication regimens?
Venkatesh & Weatherspoon 2013 Social and health care provider support in diabetes self-management. USA Qualitative; Interviews 30 patients with T2DM, Asian Indian immigrants What social and health care support do Asian Indian adults with T2DM have for self-management?
Vermeire et al. 2007 Obstacles to adherence in living with type-2 diabetes: an international qualitative study using meta-ethnography (EUROBSTACLE) Multiple country Qualitative (meta-ethnography); Focus groups 246 patients with T2DM What barriers do patients with T2DM encounter when adhering to treatment regimens?
Vinter-Repalust et al. 2004 Obstacles which patients with type 2 diabetes meet while adhering to the therapeutic regimen in everyday life: qualitative study Croatia Qualitative (content analysis); Focus groups 49 patients with T2DM What is the experience of T2DM, what are expectations of the health care system, and what barriers to adhering to the therapeutic regimen are encountered?
Wan et al. 2012 Conceptualizations of patient empowerment among individuals seeking treatment for diabetes mellitus in an urban, public-sector clinic. USA Qualitative; Interviews 29 patients with T2DM How do patients perceive patient empowerment as it applies to treatment, interactions with HPs and self-management?
Wang et al. 2012 Focus group study assessing self-management skills of Chinese Americans with type 2 diabetes mellitus USA Qualitative; Focus groups 24 patients with T2DM, Chinese-American What beliefs, experiences, knowledge and skills facilitate self-management among Chinese-American adults with T2DM?
Wens et al. 2005 GPs’ perspectives of type 2 diabetes patients’ adherence to treatment: A qualitative analysis of barriers and solutions Belgium Qualitative (descriptive, content analysis); focus groups 40 family physicians What are the thoughts and feelings of FPs about T2DM patient compliance/adherence?
Williams et al. 2008 Adherence to multiple, prescribed medications in diabetic kidney disease: A qualitative study of consumers’ and health professionals’ perspectives Australia Qualitative (descriptive exploratory); Interviews and focus groups 23 patients with T2DM and chronic kidney disease; 16 healthcare professionals What factors affect adherence to multiple prescription medications for patients with co-morbid T2DM and diabetic kidney disease?
Wilson et al. 2013 Patient and carer experience of obtaining regular prescribed medication for chronic disease in the English National Health Service: a qualitative study UK Qualitative; Interviews 21 patients with T1DM + T2DM and other chronic conditions; 9 caregivers What are patient and caregiver experiences of community and primary care services for chronic disease, especially service delivery of repeat prescriptions?
Wong et al. 2005 Perspectives on clinic attendance, medication and foot-care among people with diabetes in the Torres Strait Islands and Northern Peninsula Area Australia Qualitative (descriptive); Interviews and focus groups 67 patients with T2DM, Indigenous Torres Strait Islanders What are the perspectives and needs of indigenous people with T2DM? How might successful self-management be promoted in this group?
  1. DM = Diabetes Mellitus, T1DM = Type 1 Diabetes Mellitus, T2DM = Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus, GP = General Practitioner, FP = Family physician