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Table 1 Dialysis cost in low and middle-income countries

From: The cost of dialysis in low and middle-income countries: a systematic review

Country Author(s) and year OECD categorization Perspective Type of costs Cost items included Annually cost per patient [Int$ 2012]
Sudan Abu-Aisha and Elamin 2010 [16] least developed Uncertain - - HD 11,054.60; PD 12,107.42
Sudan Elsharif, Elsharif et al. 2010 [33] least developed Providerb Direct 3, 7, 10, 15 HDa 15,277.75
Bangladesh Li and Chow 2001 [18] least developed Uncertain -   In center: 5,758.19; CAPD: 7,073.24
Bangladesh Jindali 2011 [34] least developed Not stated - - HD 4,593.43
Dem. Rep. Congo El Matri, Elhassan et al. 2008 [17] least developed AFRAN -   PD 27,339.51
Senegal Abu-Aisha and Elamin 2010 [16] least developed Uncertain    HD 28,426.11; PD 20,000.56
Kenya Abu-Aisha and Elamin 2010 [16] low income Uncertain -   HD 16,845.10; PD 12,633.83
Egypt El Matri, Elhassan et al. 2008 [17] lower middle AFRAN -   PD 7,974.02
India Suja, Anju et al. 2012 [31] lower middle Patient Direct and indirect 3, 12, 14, 13, 12, 15 HD 40,078.25
India Khanna 2009 [32] lower middle Providerb - 3, 4, 7, 9, 10,11 HD 11,663.56
India Li and Chow 2001 [18] lower middle Uncertain -   In center: 3,423.79; CAPD: 5,057.87
Indonesia Prodjosudjadi 2006 [30] lower middle Patients -   HDa 7,112.73; CAPD 6,987.95
Indonesia Li and Chow 2001 [18] lower middle Uncertain -   In center: 10,504.81; CAPD: 7,003.21
Namibia Abu-Aisha and Elamin 2010 [16] lower middle Uncertain -   HD 25,794.06; PD 25.794,06
Nigeria Okafor and Kankam 2012 [21] lower middle Uncertain -   HD 42.784,91; PD 47.970,96
Nigeria El Matri, Elhassan et al. 2008 [17] lower middle AFRAN -   HD 19,684.44
Nigeria Abu-Aisha and Elamin 2010 [16] lower middle Uncertain -   HD 36,322.25; PD 42,112.75
Pakistan Li and Chow 2001 [18] lower middle Uncertain -   In center: 4.668,80; CAPD: 12.450,14
Pakistan Naqvi 2000 [29] lower middle Not stated - - HDc 4,003.74
Sri Lanka Ranasinghe, Perera et al. 2011 [28] lower middle Providerb Direct 1, 2, 5, 3, 4, 12, 11, 6, 7, 8, 9 HD 22,998.03
Sri Lanka Li and Chow 2001 [18] lower middle Uncertain -   In center: 5,042.00; CAPD: 11,672.00
Brazil Abreu, Walker et al. 2013 [27] upper middle Societal Direct and indirect 7, 12, 15, 3, 11, 17, 18, 20 HD 30,079.00; PD 28,592.45
Chile Pacheco, Saffie et al. 2007 [20] upper middle Uncertain Direct and indirect 21, 12, 3, 20 HD 24,461.13 PD 24,389.41
China Hu, Lee et al. 1998 [26] upper middle Patientb -   HD 35,424.89
China Li and Chow 2001 [18] upper middle Uncertain -   In center: 7,781.34; CAPD: 7,781,.34; APD: 21,787.75
Iran Arefzadeh, Lessanpezeshki et al. 2009 [25] upper middle Provider/patientb Direct and indirect 1, 2,3, 4 7, 8, 9, 10, 11, 12, 13 HD 12,788.88
Iran Mahdawi-Mazdeh, et al. 2008 [24] upper middle Hospital Direct 10, 9, 11, 7, 14,15, 2, 3, 4, 1, 5, 8 HD 13,624.62
Malaysia Hooi, Lim et al. 2005 [23] upper middle Ministry of Health Direct 1, 2, 7, 10,11,6, 8, 12, 13 HD 23,549.42; PD 23,431.51
Malaysia Li and Chow 2001 [18] upper middle Uncertain -   In center: 8,092.59; CAPD: 4,902.24; APD: 16,574.25
South Africa Abu-Aisha and Elamin 2010 [16] upper middle Uncertain -   HD 7.369,73; PD 12.633.83
South Africa El Matri, Elhassan et al. 2008 [17] upper middle AFRAN -   HD 24,878.98; PD 34,174.38
Tunisia El Matri, Elhassan et al. 2008 [17] upper middle AFRAN - - HD 11,550.94
Turkey Erek, Sever et al. 2004 [22] upper middle Provider Direct 3, 7, 10, 12, 14, 15, 16 HD 28,399.77; CAPD 27,889.40
  1. AFRAN African Association of Nephrology Congress
  2. aCosts per 2 sessions bStudy perspective assumed, cstudy modality assumed; 1- Administration; 2- Cleaning services; 3- Drugs and consumables; 4- Electricity; 5- Laundry and sterilization; 6- Security; 7- Staff wages; 8- Waste disposal; 9-Water; 10- Capital expenses (buildings, machines, instruments, etc.); 11- Maintenance and repair; 12- Hospitalization costs; 13- Personal costs to patients; 14- procedural expenses; 15-Laboratory expenses, 16- outpatient follow up; 17- transportation; 18- Caregiver cost; 19- Government aid; 20- Productivity losses; 21- reimbursement