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Table 4 Adjusted effects of socio-cultural capital and economic capital on child health-seeking behaviours for ARI

From: Socio-economic inequalities in curative health-seeking for children in Egypt: analysis of the 2008 Demographic and Health Survey

Variable   Reported symptoms Sought treatment Timely treatment Private treatment
  Sample 9,999 760 596 596
   OR (95 % CI) p OR (95 % CI) p OR (95 % CI) p OR (95 % CI) p
Socio-cultural capitala 0.85 (0.72–1.01) 0.061 1.20 (0.81–1.77) 0.360 1.23 (0.86–1.78) 0.261 0.95 (0.65–1.39) 0.789
Economic capitala 1.12 (0.91–1.37) 0.300 1.06 (0.70–1.61) 0.777 1.18 (0.81–1.73) 0.387 2.66 (1.57–4.52) <0.001
Child age in months 0–5 0.62 (0.45–0.85) 0.003 1.70 (0.73–3.98) 0.221 1.27 (0.62–2.60) 0.509 0.85 (0.42–1.72) 0.653
  6–11 1 (ref)   1 (ref)   1 (ref)   1 (ref)  
  12–23 0.75 (0.59–0.96) 0.021 0.96 (0.54–1.71) 0.891 1.01 (0.58–1.74) 0.978 0.62 (0.33–1.14) 0.124
  24–35 0.47 (0.36–0.61) <0.001 0.75 (0.40–1.42) 0.377 1.32 (0.72–2.42) 0.375 0.63 (0.31–1.27) 0.196
  36–47 0.40 (0.31–0.52) <0.001 0.90 (0.45–1.78) 0.753 0.86 (0.46–1.60) 0.626 0.57 (0.28–1.17) 0.125
  48–59 0.41 (0.31–0.54) <0.001 0.71 (0.36–1.38) 0.313 1.14 (0.56–1.29) 0.723 0.67 (0.31–1.43) 0.298
Child sex Male 1 (ref)   1 (ref)   1 (ref)   1 (ref)  
  Female 0.89 (0.76–1.04) 0.142 0.69 (0.46–1.04) 0.076 1.04 (0.72–1.50) 0.854 1.01 (0.69–1.47) 0.964
Preceding birth interval <24 months 0.87 (0.67–1.12) 0.277 1.41 (0.68–2.94) 0.377 1.28 (0.70–2.34) 0.427 0.66 (0.36–1.23) 0.191
  24–47 months 1 (ref)   1 (ref)   1 (ref)   1 (ref)  
  ≥48 months 1.01 (0.80–1.28) 0.944 1.25 (0.72–2.18) 0.402 0.84 (0.50–1.43) 0.519 1.16 (0.65–2.07) 0.623
  Only child 0.74 (0.58–0.94) 0.014 0.88 (0.52–1.48) 0.621 1.16 (0.70–1.91) 0.565 1.25 (0.70–2.23) 0.442
Mother’s age group 14–19 1.22 (0.87–1.71) 0.244 1.06 (0.53–2.14) 0.864 0.85 (0.40–1.82) 0.680 0.57 (0.25–1.34) 0.201
  20–24 1 (ref)   1 (ref)   1 (ref)   1 (ref)  
  25–29 1.05 (0.84–1.33) 0.655 0.88 (0.51–1.50) 0.637 1.41 (0.84–2.36) 0.193 0.92 (0.51–1.67) 0.787
  30–34 0.97 (0.74–1.27) 0.842 1.33 (0.70–2.56) 0.380 1.10 (0.60–2.03) 0.747 0.56 (0.29–1.06) 0.076
  35–39 0.79 (0.56–1.12) 0.195 1.18 (0.53–2.64) 0.687 1.89 (0.85–4.19) 0.118 0.90 (0.35–2.32) 0.826
  40–49 0.74 (0.43–1.26) 0.270 0.84 (0.27–2.59) 0.761 1.24 (0.35–4.41) 0.735 0.40 (0.11–1.49) 0.171
Mother female head status Yes 1 (ref)   1 (ref)   1 (ref)   1 (ref)  
  No 0.95 (0.74–1.23) 0.725 1.18 (0.63–2.13) 0.578 1.40 (0.80–2.46) 0.235 1.23 (0.64–2.35) 0.531
Children <5 in household 1 1 (ref)   1 (ref)   1 (ref)   1 (ref)  
  2 0.94 (0.76–1.16) 0.554 1.37 (0.85–2.20) 0.190 0.85 (0.54–1.35) 0.485 0.96 (0.59–1.55) 0.866
  3/4 0.88 (0.64–1.18) 0.386 1.09 (0.53–2.24) 0.822 0.63 (0.33–1.21) 0.163 1.79 (0.80–4.01) 0.158
Region Urban 1 (ref)   1 (ref)   1 (ref)   1 (ref)  
  Rural 0.73 (0.56–0.95) 0.018 0.81 (0.49–1.34) 0.406 1.56 (0.98–2.50) 0.061 1.96 (1.18–3.27) 0.010
Month of interview March 2.62 (2.09–3.29) <0.001      0.96 (0.60–1.54) 0.871
  April 1 (ref)       1 (ref)  
  May/June 0.62 (0.46–0.85) 0.003      0.52 (0.26–1.07) 0.075
Fever in recall period No    1 (ref)   1 (ref)   1 (ref)  
  Yes    3.24 (2.06–5.10) <0.001 1.29 (0.79–2.10) 0.300 0.90 (0.52–1.56) 0.702
Diarrhoea in recall period No    1 (ref)   1 (ref)   1 (ref)  
  Yes    0.79 (0.50–1.25) 0.312 0.85 (0.54–1.34) 0.485 0.71 (0.46–1.10) 0.122
Timely ARI treatment No        1 (ref)  
  Yes        1.15 (0.75–1.76) 0.532
  1. OR Odds ratio. P-value of Wald test. ARI Acute respiratory infection. 95%CI 95 % confidence interval. Weighted sample sizes reported
  2. aOdds of health-seeking behaviour under investigation associated with one unit increase in standardised score