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Table 3 Health care costs of patients on ART by CD4 cell count at the start of ART, per specified period (US$a)

From: Costs of HIV/AIDS treatment in Indonesia by time of treatment and stage of disease

CD4 cell count Item Period Average 1–24 months per patient
Before ART 1–6 months 7–12 months 13–18 months 19–24 months
0–50 Number of patients 96 96 95 84 61  
  Hospitalization 1483 (10 %) 6161 (9 %) - - - 64
  Outpatient visits 1110 (8 %) 6707 (10 %) 6462 (12 %) 5247 (11 %) 3517 (11 %) 258
  OI treatment 86 (1 %) 10867 (16 %) 2163 (4 %) 564 (1 %) 1538 (5 %) 168
  ARV drugs - 40012 (60 %) 41281 (78 %) 37724 (81 %) 26915 (81 %) 1742
  CD4 test 1254 (9 %) 620 (1 %) 990 (2 %) 832 (2 %) 541 (2 %) 36
  Viral load test - 396 (1 %) 1056 (2 %) 594 (1 %) 264 (1 %) 27
  Routine lab test 10452 (73 %) 1488 (2 %) 1289 (2 %) 1548 (3 %) 363 (1 %) 53
  Total costs 14377 (100 %) 66205 (100 %) 53196 (100 %)c 46472 (100 %c 33115 (100 %)c 2346
  Average costs per patientb 150 (139 – 160) 690 (593–787) 560 (521–599) 553 (515–592) 543 (480–606)  
50–100 Number of patients 33 33 33 32 25  
  Hospitalization 57 (1 %) 418 (2 %) - - - 13
  Outpatient visits 421 (9 %) 2337 (12 %) 2232 (11 %) 1951 (11 %) 1110 (11 %) 244
  OI treatment 12 (0.3 %) 725 (4 %) 2099 (10 %) 13 (0.1 %) 9 (0.1 %) 86
  ARV drugs - 14694 (77 %) 15360 (73 %) 14763 (83 %) 9058 (87 %) 1734
  CD4 test 475 (10 %) 172 (1 %) 383 (2 %) 264 (1 %) 132 (1 %) 30
  Viral load test - 330 (2 %) 396 (2 %) 264 (1 %) - 30
  Routine lab test 3608 (79 %) 478 (2 %) 494 (2 %) 508 (3 %) 104 (1 %) 49
  Total costs 4570 (100 %) 19138 (100 %) 20947 (100 %) 17749 (100 %) 10405 (100 %)c 2186
  Average costs per patientb 138 (126–151) 580 (567–593) 635 (622–648) 555 (542–568) 473 (460–486)  
100–150 Number of patients 22 22 22 18 13  
  Hospitalization - 418 (4 %) - - - 19
  Outpatient visits 339 (10 %) 1566 (14 %) 1391 (13 %) 1157 (13 %) 771 (14 %) 258
  OI treatment - 815 (7 %) 77 (0.7 %) 29 (0.3 %) 2 (0.04 %) 42
  ARV drugs - 8147 (72 %) 8587 (79 %) 6858 (79 %) 4661 (83 %) 1500
  CD4 test 383 (11 %) 106 (1 %) 238 (2 %) 172 (2 %) 92 (2 %) 32
  Viral load test 66 (2 %) 66 (1 %) 264 (2 %) 198 (2 %) - 26
  Routine lab test 2547 (76 %) 222 (2 %) 293 (3 %) 317 (4 %) 63 (1 %) 46
  Total costs 3333 (100 %) 11329 (100 %) 10839 (100 %) 8722 (100 %) 5585 (100 %) 1922
  Average costs per patientb 159 (144–173) 515 (500–529) 493 (478–507) 485 (470–499) 430 (415–444)  
150–200 Number of patients 17 17 14 14 11  
  Hospitalization 190 (7 %) 57 (1 %) - - - 3
  Outpatient visits 304 (11 %) 1133 (14 %) 982 (15 %) 935 (14 %) 654 (14 %) 263
  OI treatment - 66 (1 %) 3 (0.05 %) 5 (0.1 %) - 4
  ARV drugs - 6188 (77 %) 4865 (76 %) 5162 (77 %) 3717 (82 %) 1418
  CD4 test 343 (12 %) 119 (1 %) 119 (2 %) 145 (2 %) 92 (2 %) 34
  Viral load test 66 (2 %) 264 (3 %) 264 (4 %) 66 (1 %) - 39
  Routine lab test 1969 (69 %) 200 (2 %) 195 (3 %) 362 (5 %) 63 (1 %) 57
  Total costs 2870 (100 %) 8020 (100 %) 6421 (100 %) 6670 (100 %) 4522 (100 %) 1818
  Average costs per patientb 169 (136–201) 472 (445–499) 459 (432–485) 476 (450–503) 411 (384–438)  
>200 Number of patients 10 10 10 7 4  
  Hospitalization - - - - -  
  Outpatient visits 199 (13 %) 701 (15 %) 608 (13 %) 363 (12 %) 257 (20 %) 247
  OI treatment - 1 (0.02 %) - - - 0.1
  ARV drugs - 3637 (79 %) 3797 (83 %) 2715 (84 %) 938 (73 %) 1366
  CD4 test 224 (15 %) 66 (1 %) 79 (2 %) 53 (2 %) 53 (4 %) 35
  Viral load test - - - - -  
  Routine lab test 1119 (73 %) 223 (5 %) 92 (2 %) 68 (2 %) 35 (3 %) 50
  Total costs 1541 (100 %) 4623 (100 %) 4572 (100 %) 3218 (100 %) 1281 (100 %)c 1699
  Average costs per patientb 154 (114–195) 462 (437–487) 457 (432–482) 460 (435–485) 320 (295–345)  
  1. aexcept for number of patients, b95 % CI, cdifference is significant between first 6 months and the period measured, 95 % CI