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Table 4 Final models of relationship between neighborhood factors on diabetes outcomes and quality of life

From: Assessing the relationship between neighborhood factors and diabetes related health outcomes and self-care behaviors

  HbA1c Systolic blood pressure LDL cholesterol
Neighborhood problems    
 Safety 0.019 −0.058 −0.116
 Violence 0.053 0.429 4.04*
 Crime 0.105 −0.048 3.54
 Problems 0.045 −0.331 0.658
Neighborhood characteristics    
 Aesthetics 0.054 −0.608 1.67
 Walking environments 0.011 0.160 −0.654
 Recreational facilities 0.016 −0.101 −0.368
 Neighborhood activities −0.017 0.166 1.37
 Neighborhood rating 0.163 −1.28 −0.412
 Neighborhood comparison −0.006 0.504 −3.89
Access to healthy food    
 Food insecurity 0.092 0.226 −1.87
 Access to healthy food −0.001 −0.126 −0.355
Social support    
 Social cohesion −0.086* 0.295 −0.385
 Social support −0.002 0.011 −0.132
 Comorbidities 0.005 −0.045 0.737
Health literacy    
 Low (ref)    
 Marginal −0.326 2.88 −13.9
 Adequate −0.230 3.52 −7.31
Age    
 18–34 years −0.029 2.07 1.71
 35–44 years 0.395 −1.62 −17.5
 45–64 years (ref)    
 65+ years −0.363 2.45 −10.7
Gender    
 Male (ref)    
 Female −0.239 3.58* 15.8*
Marital status    
 Never married (ref)    
 Married 0.179 0.807 16.8
 Separated/divorced 0.163 1.86 13.4
 Widowed −0.240 0.820 22.6
Race    
 Non-Hispanic White (ref)    
 Non-Hispanic Black −0.112 4.10 9.21
 Hispanic/other 0.170 3.35 30.2
Education    
 <High school 0.238 5.02 3.23
 High school −0.134 0.972 3.95
 College (ref)    
 Graduate school −0.221 4.57 14.6
Employment    
 Unemployment (ref)    
 Employed 0.087 −1.12 0.448
Income    
 <$19,999 (ref)    
 $20,000–49,999 0.098 3.45 3.89
 $50,000–74,000 0.188 2.58 11.9
 ≥$75,000 −0.382 8.15* −6.54
Health insurance    
 Uninsured (ref)    
 Private −0.106 2.53 −3.26
 Medicare −0.234 1.59 −23.3
 Medicaid −0.686 6.51 −23.6
 Military −0.185 −1.64 −14.6
 Other insurance −0.182 −4.28 −28.4*
R2 0.041 0.042 0.016
  1. * p < 0.05, ref = reference group
  2. Final model for each outcome after hierarchical models run entering variables in blocks based on theoretical relationships – first model included variables characterized as neighborhood problems, second block added variables characterized as neighborhood characteristics, third block added variables, characterized as access to healthy foods, fourth block added variables characterized as social support, and fifth block added sociodemographic variable