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Table 2 Comparison of child, mother, and household characteristics between the intervention and comparison samples at baseline, 2005 DHS weighted data

From: The effect of performance-based financing on illness, care-seeking and treatment among children: an impact evaluation in Rwanda

  Total Intervention Comparison Difference
  (N = 2619) % (N = 1631) % (N = 988) % Perc.Pta p-valueb
Child         
 Age <12 months 590 22.5 376 23.0 214 21.6 1.40 0.406
 Sex: Boy 1333 50.9 843 51.7 489 49.5 2.20 0.289
 Birth order: 1st birth 439 16.7 275 16.9 164 16.5 0.40 0.846
 Birth order: ≥ 5th 988 37.7 632 38.7 356 36.0 2.70 0.335
 Slept under bednet 277 10.8 179 11.2 97 10.1 1.10 0.621
 Health facility birth 586 22.4 348 21.4 238 24.1 −2.70 0.409
Mother         
 Age <20 years 497 19.0 336 20.6 161 16.3 4.30 0.064
 Age ≥35 years 386 14.7 239 14.6 147 14.9 −0.30 0.886
 Primary school grad. 445 17.0 275 16.8 170 17.2 −0.40 0.881
 Married 1310 88.2 1429 87.6 881 89.1 −1.50 0.380
 Previous child death 1126 43.0 714 43.8 412 41.7 2.10 0.495
Household         
 Wealth status         
 Poorest 498 19.0 318 19.5 180 18.2 1.30 0.619
 Poorer 534 20.4 296 18.1 238 24.1 −6.00 0.050
 Middle 548 20.9 367 22.5 181 18.3 4.20 0.109
 Less poor 525 20.0 342 21.0 182 18.4 2.60 0.326
 Least poor 515 19.6 308 18.9 206 20.9 −2.00 0.608
 Health insurance 1283 49.0 771 47.3 512 51.8 −4.50 0.364
 Rural residence 2399 91.6 1523 93.4 876 88.6 4.80 0.254
 Improved toiletc 610 23.3 338 20.7 272 27.5 −6.80 0.077
 Clean water sourced 871 33.2 601 36.9 269 27.3 13.50 0.066
  1. aPercentage point difference between intervention and comparison groups
  2. bT-tests comparing proportions between intervention and comparison groups
  3. cIncludes flush toilets and improved latrines
  4. dIncludes tap water and water from improved wells