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Table 8 Changes in behavioral outcomes

From: The impact of interventions on appointment and clinical outcomes for individuals with diabetes: a systematic review

  Author On schedule To visit With information Improved self-management Increased outpatient care servicesa Decreased acute care utilization Improved adherence to ADA guidelines Other
      SMBG testing Self-efficacy score QOL score Patient satisfaction Physical activity exercise Foot care Diet Nutrition Lab tests completed Vaccination Provider visit Specialist visit Emergency visits Hospital admissions Foot exam Eye exam Processes of care  
1 Anderson et al. 2003 [15]                   S   
41 Lafata et al. 2002 [14]            A1c   S      S   
LDL
60 Rai et al. 2011 [18]            A1c   S        
70 Subramanian et al. 2009 [23]            A1c↓   NS   NS NS     
LDL
Alb↓
2 Austin and Wolfe 2011 [24]             A1c          
LDL
17 Derose et al. 2009 [25]             A1c          
LDL
Alb
66 DM Smith et al. 1987 [27]               S    NS     Kept scheduled visits↑
Scheduled appointments↑
Missed appointments
Medication refills
3 Avdal et al. 2011 [61]               S        
5 Benhamou et al. 2007 [63]    NS   S                
8 Carter et al. 2011 [37]         NS   NS            Diabetes knowledge↑
Diabetes management practice↑
Perceived physical health status↑
Perceived mental health status↑
10 Cherry et al. 2002 [46]       S NS        S↓   NS NS     Patients who feel more connected
Medication compliance
Number of post-discharge visits
12 Cho et al. 2009 [66] (internet vs. phone)    NSb    NSa               
13 Cho et al. 2011 [67]    S                  
15 Ciemins et al. 2009 [52]             A1c       S S S  
LDL
Lip
AlbCR
18 Dijkstra et al. 2005 [54]             A1c    NS    S NS   Urine exam < 12 mo.
TC Weight checked
BP BMI checked
Physical exercise advised↑
Smoking discussed↑
CR
24 Glasgow et al. 2003 (overall) [70]         NS   S           S Psychosocial outcomes (total support scale)↑
Glasgow et al. 2003 (peer support) [70]         NS   NS           NS Psychosocial outcomes (total support scale)↑
Glasgow et al. 2003 (tailored self-management) [70]         NS   S           NS Psychosocial outcomes (total support scale)
25 Glasgow et al. 2004 [58]    S   NS S     S BP       S S   Self-management goal setting↑
Alb Depressive symptoms
32 HS Kim et al. 2005 [44]        S               
33 HS Kim et al. 2006 [42]         S S NS            Medication taking↑
40 Kwon et al. 2004 [45]        A               
43 Litzelman et al. 1993 [75]          S          S    
44 Lorig et al. 2010 [76]      S    NS       NS        Health distress↓
Depression
Patient activation
46 McCarrier et al. 2009 [77]      S                 Program usage
50 McMahon et al. 2012 [47] (online care)                      Diabetes distress
McMahon et al. 2012 [47] (telephone care)                      Diabetes distress
McMahon et al. 2012 [47] (usual care with web training)                      Diabetes distress
51 Mehler et al. 2005 [79]             LDL          
Lip
52 Meigs et al. 2003 [49]             A1c       S NS   
LDL
56 Moorman et al. 2012 [81]    NS                  Follow up appointment kept
Returned SMBG log
57 Musacchio et al. 2011 [82]                S↓       
58 Nes et al. 2012 [83]       NP                Diabetes distress
59 Piette et al. 2000 [84]      S NS S               Depression↓
Days in bed because of illness↓
Anxiety
62 Ryan et al. 2013 [85]       NS                
63 Sacco et al. 2009 [48]      S    S S S            
68 Song et al. 2009 [87]                      Diabetes care knowledge↑
Diabetes care behavior↑
71 Tang et al. 2013 [89]        S        NS        Diabetes distress
74 Weber et al. 2008 [53]             A1c In        S Percentage documented non-smoker
Pn
LDL
Alb
76 Yoo et al. 2009 [91]    NP                  
65 Seto et al. 2012 [16]           A1c          Appointment adherence
4 Bailie et al. 2004 [62]            A1c In      S S   Weight measurement↓
CR Pn
BMI measurement
AlbCR
Counseling about diet, activity, weight, smoking, alcohol, medication
Lip
14 Chumbler et al. 2005 [21]              S NS S S NS NS   
16 de Grauw et al. 2002 [19]            A1c   S S       
SBP
DBP
20 Edwards et al. 2012 [17]            A1c In      S S S  
Lip Pn
22 Fischer et al. 2011 [13] (mailed patient report card)            A1c          
BP
LDL
30 Jones and Curry 2006 [50]             In      S S   
Pn
45 MacLean et al. 2009 [20]      NS   S NS NS   A1c   S↓ S↓ S S     Functional status
Blood testing
LDL
Cost↓
CR
64 Sadur et al. 1999 [22]   NS NS   NS NS NS   S    NS    S     
23 Fischer et al. 2012 [69]   S    A               No-shows
Cancellations
28 Holbrook et al. 2009 [28]        NS     A1c   S     S   S  
BP
LDL
Alb
47 McDermott et al. 2001 [32]            A1c In     S S S   Hypertension receiving treatment,
BP Pn
Retinopathy noted,
Dyslipidemia noted↑,
Self monitoring,
Urinary ACR checked <12 mo.↑,
Weight checked↑,
BP checked ↓,
Lip Albuminuria on ACE inhibitor treatment
CR
48 McDiarmid et al. 2001 [51]            A1c       S S   Office visit with inquiry of hypoglycemia↑
LDL
Alb
53 Meulepas et al. 2007 [30]            A1c       S S   Smoking status checked↑,
BP
BMI checked↑
FBG
DBP
TC
CR
54 Meulepas et al. 2008 [31]        S              Percentage of non-smokers,
BMI checked
72 Thomas et al. 2007 [26]            A1c          
LDL
19 Edelman et al. 2010 [34]            S↓   S NS     Lightheadedness or falls↓,
Medication adherence
  1. S significant (p-value≤0.05), NS non-significant (p-value>0.05), ↓ decrease, ↑ increase
  2. aIf outpatient care services are significantly reduced (not increased) after intervention, it is represented using ↓
  3. A1c Hemoglobin HbA1c test, SBP Systolic blood pressure, DBP Diastolic blood pressure, BP Blood pressure, CR Creatinine, TC Total cholesterol, FBG Fasting blood glucose, Alb Urine microalbumin, AlbCR Microalbumin/creatinine, BMI Body mass index, Lip Lipid profile, In Influenza vaccination, Pn Pneumonia vaccination
  4. Bolded text indicates significant findings
  5. bDifference between groups, A Measured only after the intervention, NP p-value is not given