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Table 7 Changes in other clinical outcomes

From: The impact of interventions on appointment and clinical outcomes for individuals with diabetes: a systematic review

  Author On schedule To visit With information LDL (mg/dL) SBP (mm/Hg) Total cholesterol (mg/dL) Triglycerides (mg/dL) Other
Int Con p Int Con p Int Con p Int Con p
39 Kirsh et al. 2007 [12]    −16 −5.4 0.29 −14.8 −2.5 0.04        
70 Subramanian et al. 2009 [23]    −6 −4 NS 1 −2 ≤0.05        
5 Benhamou et al. 2007 [63]                 Glycaemia
6 Bond et al. 2006 [64]                 BS
7 Bond et al. 2007 [36]        −6.8 −1 ≤.010 −11.4 −5.1 ≤.050     HDL
Wt
DBP
8 Carter et al. 2011 [37]        −7 −8 NS        BMI
Wt
DBP
12 Cho et al. 2009 [66] (phone)    NP NA NS     NP NA NS NP NA NS FPG
2HPMG
HDL
Cho et al. 2009 [66] (internet)    NP NA NS     NP NA NS NP NA NS FPG
2HPMG
HDL
13 Cho et al. 2011 [67]           −0.2c NA .043 −0.5c NA NS FBG
HDL
NA 0.1c NS NA −0.3c NS
Liver enzymes
18 Dijkstra et al. 2005 [54]        1.1 −0.2 NS -0.2c −0.2c NS     DBP
CR
24 Glasgow et al. 2003 [70] (overall)    −8.3 NA ≤.010     −11.7 NA ≤.010 −16.5 NA ≤.001 Lipid ratio
HDL
Glasgow et al. 2003 [70] (peer support)                 Lipid ratio
Glasgow et al. 2003 [70] (tailored self-management)                 Lipid ratio
26 Grant et al. 2008 [55]    NP NP NS           Blood pressure
27 Harno et al. 2006 [71]    −0.18c 0.11c NP 1 1 NP −0.21c 0.12c NP −0.05c 0.21c NP DBP
FBG
BMI
HDL
CR
32 HS Kim et al. 2005 [44] “Effects of an Internet-based Intervention…”           −13.50 NA NS 27.30 NA NS FPG
2HPMG
HDL
34 HS Kim 2007 [39] “A randomized controlled trial of a nurse short-message service…”                 2HPMG
FPG
35 HS Kim 2007 [40] “Impact of web-based nurse’s education…”                 FPG d
2HPMG
36 HS Kim and H. Jeong 2007 [41] “A nurse short message service by cellular phone…”                 2HPMG
FPG
37 HS Kim and M. Song 2008 [43] “Technological intervention for obese patients with type 2 diabetes”           −5.1 9.9 0.04 4.5 40.8 0.62 FPG
2HPMG
HDL
38 SI Kim and HS Kim 2008 [73] “Effectiveness of mobile and internet intervention…”                 2HPMG
FPG
39 Kwon et al. 2004a [74]           −0.9 NA NS −24.4 NA ≤.007 HDL
FPG
40 Kwon et al. 2004b [45]    −1.93 NA NS     −3.33 NA NS −19.5 NA NS HDL
NA 1.88 NS NA 7.3 NS NA 13.5 NS FBG
49 McMahon et al. 2005 [78]    −6 −5 NS −10 −7 ≤0.01     −38 NA ≤0.01 DBP
NA −2 NS HDL
50 McMahon et al. 2012 [47] (online care)    −4.0 NA 0.29 −0.3 NA 0.89 −7.8 NA 0.07 −25.5 NA 0.01 DBP
HDL
Wt
BMI
McMahon et al. 2012 [47] (telephone care)    −5.5 NA 0.12 −6.7 NA .006 −8.5 NA 0.05 −6.5 NA 0.68 DBP
HDL
Wt
BMI
McMahon et al. 2012 [47] (usual care with web training)    5.8 NA 0.12 −3.1 NA 0.30 −10.7 NA 0.02 −26.4 NA 0.08 DBP
HDL
Wt
BMI
52 Meigs et al. 2003 [49]    −14.7 −9.4 0.30 0.8 −2.2 0.03        DBP
55 Moattari et al. 2013 [80]    −8.2 5.1 <0.02     3.9 −0.8 0.69 45.3 −7.9 0.34 HDL
FBS
61 Ralston et al. 2009 [38]        NP NP NS NP NP NS     DBP
62 Ryan et al. 2013 [85]    −15.7 NA 0.10 4.4 NA 0.30 −15.5 NA 0.14 21 NA 0.01 DBP
HDL
BMI
67 KE Smith et al. 2004 [86]    −18 NA NS −6 NA NS −25 NA NS −9 NA NS BMI
DBP
HDL
68 Song et al. 2009 [87]                 FBG
71 Tang et al. 2013 [89]    −6.1 0.0 .001 −7.1 −5.3 NS        Wt
DBP
Framingham cardiovascular risk
73 Tildesley et al. 2010 [90]           NP NP S NP NP S  
76 Yoo et al. 2009 [91] “A ubiquitous chronic disease care system using cellular phones and the internet”    −0.4c −0.1c 0.03     −0.5c 0.0c 0.01     Wt
BMI
−0.4c NA ≤.001 −7 NA ≤.001 −0.5c NA ≤.001 −0.22c NA ≤.003
DBP
HDL
NA −0.1c NS NA −4.00 NS NA 0.0c NS NA 0.08c NS
77 Yoon and HS Kim 2008 [92]           −3.1a 29.3a 0.18 −31.1a 52.3a 0.28 2HPMG
HDL
FPG
4 Bailie et al. 2004 [62]       66e NA NS        DBP
0a NA NS
11 Cho et al. 2006 [57]          −0.14ac −0.31ac NS −0.08ac 0.4ac ≤.050 HDL
FBG
CR
16 de Grauw et al. 2002 [19]       −3 NA 0.20 −31 NA ≤.001 −41 NA ≤.001 HDL
FBG
DBP
30 Jones and Curry 2006 [50]   −2.5 −5.3 NS −1.1 −0.7 NS        DBP
−2.5 NA NS −1.1 NA NS
Wt
NA −5.3 0.03 NA −0.7 NS
45 MacLean et al. 2009 [20]   −12.5 −13.6 NS           BMI
DBP
28 Holbrook et al. 2009 [28]   −0.05c 0.02c NS −4.7 0.3 0.04        DBP
BMI
Alb
29 Hurwitz et al. 1993 [72]                RPG
53 Meulepas et al. 2007 [30]       −5 4 ≤.050 −0.4c −0.3c NS −0.1c 0.1c NS FBG
DBP
54 Meulepas et al. 2008 [31]       4 5 NS −0.3c −0.3c NS −0.3c −0.3c NS FBG
BMI
DBP
72 Thomas et al. 2007 [26]   −4.9 −4 0.61 −0.5 NA NS        DBP
NA 1.7 NS
75 Yeh et al. 2006 [33]          −24 −22 ≤.050     FBG
19 Edelman et al. 2010 [34]     −13.7a −6.4a 0.01        DBP
42 Lin et al. 2007 [29] −0.59c NA <0.01 −4.7 NA NS        DBP
Wt
NA −0.16c NS NA 1 NS
  1. Int intervention, Con Control, NA not Applicable, NS non-significant (p-value>0.05), S significant (p-value≤0.05), NP not provided
  2. Results are differences in mean before and after implementation of intervention except those indicated with the following superscripts
  3. aMultiple measurements are presented over time after the intervention in the paper, but the last measurement is used to calculate the difference in this table
  4. bMultiple measurements are presented over time after the intervention in the paper, but median change is reported
  5. cUnit is mmol/l
  6. dHbA1c<7 at baseline
  7. e% with BP < 140/90
  8. Other outcome measures include: DBP Diastolic blood pressure, CR Creatinine, Wt Weight, FPG Fasting plasma glucose, FBG Fasting blood glucose, FBS Fasting blood sugar, BS Blood sugar, 2HPMG 2-hour post-meal glucose, FBG Fasting blood glucose, RPG Random plasma glucose, Alb Albuminuria
  9. Bolded text in ‘Other’ category indicates significant finding