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Table 6 Detailed information about interventions

From: The impact of interventions on appointment and clinical outcomes for individuals with diabetes: a systematic review

Author Intervention description Other information
1 Anderson et al. 2003 [15] On the schedule: Standard (control) and intensive personalized (intervention) groups received reminder letter with date, time, location of eye clinic, toll-free number one month before annual exam to schedule an appointment. IP follow-up group: phone discussion about diabetic eye disease and transportation arrangement to exam.
Intensive personalized (IP) group received phone call if appointment not scheduled within 10 days of reminder letter date.
To the visit: Not applicable (NA)
Patient information: NA
2 Austin and Wolfe 2011 [24] On the schedule: NA NA
To the visit: Pilot group received reminder letter signed by physician to go to the clinic to have HbA1c or LDL-C tests and are offered a gas card if they receive the tests.
Patient information: NA
3 Avdal et al. 2011 [61] On the schedule: NA NA
To the visit: NA
Patient information: Intervention group entered self-measured blood glucose (SMBG) tests, accessed education, and could send messages to researcher through web site. SMBG graphics and profile were available to patient via web site.
4 Bailie et al. 2004 [62] On the schedule: Scheduling guideline services integrated with computerized information system identifying patients due for scheduled services. NA
To the visit: NA
Patient information: Audit of guideline adherence per participant, e.g., target blood pressure 130/80 mm Hg, percentage with HbA1c <7 %. Reminder to providers when patients’ scheduling services due.
5 Benhamou et al. 2007 [63] On the schedule: NA NA
To the visit: NA
Patient information: Patients downloaded SMBG levels to SMS weekly and received medical feedback. Data transmitted to software module creating and managing patient files on database.
6 Bond et al. 2006 [64] On the schedule: NA NA
To the visit: NA
Patient information: Participants accessed website to: access library, receive on-line counseling, receive tailor self-management instruction, participate in weekly problem-solving discussion with nurse, use bulletin board to post goals, and enter SMBG, medication, diet, weight and BP.
7 Bond et al. 2007 [36] On the schedule: NA Intervention group: weekly online education discussion; Control group: access to educational materials via classroom or internet.
To the visit: NA
Patient information: Online (asynchronous [email and bulletin board] and synchronous [instant messaging and chat]) with study nurse. Participant entered SMBGs, exercise, weight, blood pressure, and medication via web portal. Study nurse accessed participants’ logs monitoring self-management patterns. Study nurse contacted participant via email or chat.
8 Carter et al. 2011 [37] On the schedule: NA Intervention group: Access to health education module with culturally age-appropriate education through videos and web sites, and social networking module linking intervention participants.
To the visit: NA
Patient information: Self-management module: Nurse contacted patients biweekly for 30 minutes by video conference and reviewed uploaded data while patient viewed self-management video. Nurse and patient discuss data and behavior-change strategies. Patients would discuss problems in managing disease, e.g., medication side effects, and nurse provided feedback. Nurse transmitted data to patient’s EHR (electronic health record). Provider transmitted updated treatment plans, lab results and other orders via portal to nurse and patient.
9 Cavan et al. 2003 [65] On the schedule: NA NA
To the visit: NA
Patient information: Patients used DiasNet computer model to display and analyze SMBG levels, and problem solve via internet. Data was analyzed and discussed in weekly group sessions.
10 Cherry et al. 2002 [46] On the schedule: NA Patients received free blood glucose monitoring equipment.
To the visit: NA
Patient information: Patients answered daily questions (changes in feet, blood sugar and medication) with Health Buddy (phone tool). Care manager using browser-based tool could automatically risk stratify information, forward patient information to provider, make provider referrals and reinforce self-management.
11 Cho et al. 2006 [57] On the schedule: Intervention and control patients scheduled for outpatient visits every 3 mos. Both groups received diabetes management, nutrition, exercise, and blood glucose self-monitoring education.
To the visit: NA
Patient information: Intervention group uploaded glucose levels, medications, BP and weight to web. Clinical instructors reviewed information daily and sent recommendations every 2 weeks. Medication changes referred to researcher and self-management or lifestyle changes referred to nurse or dietitian.
12 Cho et al. 2009 [66] On the schedule: NA NA
To the visit: NA
Patient information: Participants using diabetes phones transmitted SMBG levels to web server automatically, received provider messages via SMS. Participants using internet entered SMBG levels on individual web charts, used self-management program, communicated with provider. Both groups received visual display graphs of data and encouragement if no SMBG entered > 1 week.
13 Cho et al. 2011 [67] On the schedule: NA NA
To the visit: NA
Patient information: When patients visited the public healthcare post, nurses measured blood glucose level with a PDA for both intervention and control group. For the intervention group, the glucose levels and other health information were uploaded to a remote diabetes center; physicians at diabetes center performed problem assessment and made recommendations for patients. Nurses contacted the patients and educated intervention group patients according to physician instruction.
14 Chumbler et al. 2005 [21] On the schedule: Care coordinator facilitated scheduling provider appointment if necessary. NA
To the visit: NA
Patient information: Intervention group used phone data line to answer questions (symptoms, behavior, and knowledge). Patient data downloaded to care coordinator’s desktop daily and patients contacted via audio-visual conferencing.
15 Ciemins et al. 2009 [52] On the schedule: NA NA
To the visit: NA
Patient information: Diabetes registry integrated with EHR identified diabetes patients prior to office visit, staff able to print patient diabetes care summary sheet for provider, and patient report cards for patients.
16 de Grauw et al. 2002 [19] On the schedule: Office assistant contact patients who do not come in for visits at regular intervals. Feedback at practice and physician level.
To the visit: NA
Patient information: Registry records process and outcome measures from visits into EHR.
17 Derose et al. 2009 [25] On the schedule: NA NA
To the visit: Automated reminder system for patients with overdue lab tests, included phone calls and/or letters. Interventions are: I.1 Letter, I.2 Letter-Call, I.3 Letter-Call-Letter, I.4 Call, I.5 Call-Letter
Patient information: NA
18 Dijkstra et al. 2005 [54] On the schedule: NA NA
To the visit: NA
Patient information: Diabetes passport (PHR) summarizes personal goals, medical or lab outcomes for each year.
19 Edelman et al. 2010 [34] On the schedule: Intervention groups with 7 to 8 patients meeting every 2 months. NA
To the visit: Received $10 for group visit attended for travel costs.
Patient information: Structured group interactions facilitated by diabetes educator with pharmacist and physician adjusting medications based on HbA1c and BP.
20 Edwards et al. 2012 [17] On the schedule: Patients are contacted by telephone to schedule an appointment with a pharmacist in Diabetes Assessment Service (DAS) approximately 1 week prior to the physician appointment. NA
To the visit: NA
Patient information: Pharmacist completed the ADA standards of care including measurement of HbA1c and fasting lipid panel (total cholesterol, LDL, HDL, and triglycerides); a comprehensive monofilament foot exam; administration of pneumococcal and influenza vaccinations; collection of urine sample for screening for microalbumin; referral for funduscopic eye exam; medication history focusing on adherence to prescribed antidiabetic, antihypertensive, and antihyperlipidemic medications and aspirin. The results of tests and any pharmacotherapy recommendations are documented in the patient’s EMR. The note is routed to the physician for review prior to the next appointment.
21 Farmer et al. 2005 [68] On the schedule: NA Both groups given blood glucose monitor
To the visit: NA
Patient information: Both groups given mobile phone; SMBG levels, food intake, insulin dose, and activity levels automatically transmitted to server and made available to patient by web. Intervention group received real time clinical advice and structured counseling from diabetes specialist nurse.
22 Fischer et al. 2011 [13] On the schedule: Mailed patient report card reminding patient to schedule appointment if ≥ 2 mos since last provider visit. NA
To the visit: NA
Patient information: Point-of-care patient report cards generated automatically at visit (and mailed quarterly) included patient performance compared to national targets. Medical assistants encouraged patients’ self-management goals. Quarterly provider performance report card generated from the registry.
23 Fischer et al. 2012 [69] On the schedule: NA The PRM system sends text messages to patients automatically according to an established schedule, and processes responses for appropriate action based on established threshold values.
To the visit: Patients received text message appointment reminders 7, 3, and 1 days before appointments.
Patient information: Patients received blood sugar reading requests every Monday, Wednesday, and Friday. The fasting blood sugar values outside the range of 70 to 400 mg/dL were automatically flagged in PRM and routed to a work queue. A registered nurse reviewed all flagged messages, contacted patients by telephone for follow-up assessment, presented out-of-range values to a physician, and ensured that both telephone encounters and patient-reported blood sugar measurements were appropriately documented in the medical record.
24 Glasgow et al. 2003 [70] On the schedule: NA Peer support
To the visit: NA
Patient information: All groups received information-based diabetes self-management website providing coaching, resources and graphical feedback based on transmitted SMBG levels and diet. Peer information exchange, coping strategies, emotional support, and 5 electronic newsletters.
25 Glasgow et al. 2004 [58] On the schedule: NA NA
To the visit: NA
Patient information: Diabetes Priority Program touchscreen assessment and feedback completed. BP, cholesterol, feet exam, microalbumin, dilated eye exam, dietary, physical activity, and smoking behavior and self-management goals data entered creating patient’s personalized action plan and summary of needed medical procedures printout.
26 Grant et al. 2008 [55] On the schedule: NA Evaluate treatment intensification
To the visit: NA
Patient information: Intervention group used PHRs prior to visit with ability to review and edit medications, self-management goals/limitations, view laboratory results and generate diabetes care plan electronically submitted to physician before next appointment.
27 Harno et al. 2006 [71] On the schedule: NA Home care link free of charge
To the visit: NA
Patient information: Intervention group downloaded SMBG levels into regional database using modem. Self-management system allowed diabetes team to transmit SMS test messages to patients’ mobile phones and internet access.
28 Holbrook et al. 2009 [28] On the schedule: NA NA
To the visit: Patients received monthly phone reminders for medications and for laboratory and provider visits.
Patient information: Most recent laboratory results and other diabetes risk factors (e.g., feet check, smoking and physical activity) available to patient and provider at time of visit. Brief, prioritized messages of advice sent to patient by provider based on automated risk analysis.
29 Hurwitz et al. 1993 [72] On the schedule: NA NA
To the visit: Database, which sends requests to patients to provide laboratory testing (6 monthly prompt) and optometrist exam (12 monthly prompt).
Patient information: Laboratory results incorporated into PHR, sent to patients and request for provider within 10 days (elevated blood glucose 3 days). Lack of feedback (including optometry) prompts phone/letter reminder to provider and letter reminder to patient.
30 Jones and Curry 2006 [50] On the schedule: Reminder for recommended care based on practice guidelines and scheduling for services (mailed quarterly). NA
To the visit: NA
Patient information: Data entered into PDA at each visit: HbA1c, hepatic enzymes, weight, systolic and diastolic BP, and date of glucometer correlation. Clinical practice guideline recommendations tracked: dates/results of last lipid panel, nephropathy screen, eye exam, foot exam, last influenza and pneumococcal vaccinations, last diabetes education, dietician education, and smoking cessation education if needed. Reminder of due or overdue guideline recommendations to provider at each patient visit.
31 HS Kim et al. 2005 [44] On the schedule: NA NA
To the visit: NA
Patient information: Intervention group entered SMBG values and drug information to website. Nurse researcher reviewed entered data and integrated EHR data (smoking habits, body mass index (BMI), blood pressure (BP) and laboratory results), sending recommendations to patient by SMS and internet. Medication changes were communicated to patients’ providers. Education provided and reinforcement of diet, exercise, foot care, medication adjustment and self-management by SMS and internet. If no patient self-monitored blood glucose (SBMG) data entered on website for > 1 week, warning message was sent to patient via internet.
32 HS Kim et al. 2006 [42] On the schedule: NA NA
To the visit: NA
Patient information: See H. Kim et al. 2005 [44] (Index # 31)
33, 34 HS Kim 2007 [39, 40] On the schedule: NA NA
To the visit: NA
Patient information: See H. Kim et al. 2005 [44] (Index # 31)
35 HS Kim and Jeong 2007 [41] On the schedule: NA NA
To the visit: NA
Patient information: See H. Kim et al. 2005 [44] (Index # 31)
36 HS Kim and Song 2008 [43] On the schedule: NA NA
To the visit: NA
Patient information: See H. Kim et al. 2005 [44] (Index # 31)
37 SI Kim and HS Kim 2008 [73] On the schedule: NA NA
To the visit: NA
Patient information: See H. Kim et al. 2005 [44] (Index # 31)
38 Kirsh et al. 2007 [12] On the schedule: A letter is sent informing the patient that he/she had suboptimal diabetes measures and inviting the patient to call and make an appointment. NA
To the visit: NA
Patient information: NA
39 Kwon et al. 2004 [74] On the schedule: NA NA
To the visit: NA
Patient information: Intervention group entered SMBG levels, medication, BP, weight, diet, exercise or hypoglycemic events on web. Providers could review data e.g., past history, family history, smoking, anthropometry, BMI, BP, and lab data. After integration patient data, providers sent recommendations via individual EHR and answered questions. Nurses reviewed lifestyle changes, exercise and dietitians reviewed nutrition via EHR. If no patient SBMG data entered on website for > 1 week, warning message sent via internet.
40 Kwon et al. 2004 [45] On the schedule: NA NA
To the visit: NA
Patient information: Participants entered SMBG levels, medication, and hypoglycemic events on web. Patient questions about medication, diet, and exercise posted through specialized electronic chart on web. SMBG levels also sent using SMS. Providers sent recommendations about medications according to SMBG. Dieticians and nurses provided nutrition and exercise consults on web.
41 Lafata et al. 2002 [14] On the schedule: Letter from provider mailed to patient for birthday with felicitations, advise routine appointments, screening and laboratory tests, and a self-care handbook, and preventive care checklist. NA
To the visit: NA
Patient information: NA
42 Lin et al. 2007 [29] On the schedule: Intervention group scheduled for individual 30- minute appointments instead of default 15-minute appointments every 3 mos. A secretary telephoned each patient before scheduled appointment day to arrange for routine blood work one week before the appointment. NA
To the visit: A secretary telephoned each patient before scheduled appointment day as reminder of appointment, to bring medications and SMBG log books.
Patient information: Standardize diabetic flow sheet according to Canadian Diabetes Association’s guidelines used to record patient information.
43 Litzelman et al. 1993 [75] On the schedule: NA Behavioral contract for desired foot-care
To the visit: NA
Patient information: Nurse-clinicians conducted educational sessions covering foot-care behavior. Intervention group received postcard reminder of desired foot-care behavior. Providers received informational flow sheet providing patient-specific risk factors, foot-care practice guidelines, diagnostic work-up, treatment and referral recommendations.
44 Lorig et al. 2010 [76] On the schedule: NA NA
To the visit: NA
Patient information: Intervention group utilized web diabetes self-management program: ‘The Learning Center’ (educational material), weekly queries for problems and to set action plan, a ‘Discussion Center’ (interactive, threaded), ‘Tools’ (exercise, medication, meal planning and SMBG logs), ‘Post Office’ (private email to facilitator, and ‘Help’ (also available by phone).
45 Maclean et al. 2009 [20] On the schedule: The Vermont Diabetes Information System (VDIS), a lab based registry, sent provider faxed reminders and mailed patient reminders for overdue lab tests. NA
To the visit: NA
Patient information: Provider decision support with faxed lab results flow sheets and mailed quarterly population reports for peer comparisons. Mailed alerts for elevated test results.
46 McCarrier et al. 2009 [77] On the schedule: NA NA
To the visit: NA
Patient information: Intervention group received 1-hour consultation with nurse practitioner and 1:1 web module instruction. Website allowed patient to view their EMR, enter SMBG values, trend daily medication, nutrition, and exercise, create action plan, and use educational resources.
47 McDermott et al. 2001 [32] On the schedule: NA NA
To the visit: Trained healthcare workers managing a paper-based recall and reminder system for follow-up
Patient information: Staff training in checking weight, BP, visual acuity, feet, HbA1c, lipid level and urine for albumin to creatinine ratio (ACR) and administration of vaccines.
48 McDiarmid et al. 2001 [51] On the schedule: NA NA
To the visit: Flashing reminder on check-in screen for patient to complete Diabetes Questionnaire and Reminder sheet (DQR). DQR directed patient attention to adherence to preventive care schedule and recommendations.
Patient information: DQR reminded providers to update diabetic flow chart and check feet. DQR directed patient attention to HbA1c, recent blood sugars, and self-management issues.
49 McMahon et al. 2005 [78] On the schedule: NA NA
To the visit: NA
Patient information: Intervention group received notebook computer, glucose and BP monitoring devices and access to care management website. Patients received educational resources, uploaded information from monitoring devices and could internal message the care manager using website.
50 McMahon et al. 2012 [47] On the schedule: NA NA
To the visit: NA
Patient information: Online care management (I.1): Patients are asked to upload glucose and blood pressure monitoring data and communicate securely with provider through patient portal; Telephone care management (I.2): Patients received phone calls bi-weekly to review glucose and blood pressure readings; Usual care with web training (I.3): Patients had access to online training materials that could be viewed at their discretion.
51 Mehler et al. 2005 [79] On the schedule: NA Provider education
To the visit: NA
Patient information: Providers urged to order lipid profiles for intervention groups by direct detailing or electronic detailing, reinforcing current lipid treatment guidelines and answering specific hyperlipidemia treatment questions.
52 Meigs et al. 2003 [49] On the schedule: NA NA
To the visit: NA
Patient information: Disease Management Application (DMA) enables decision support at time of patient contact, displays trended and tabular electronic laboratory data interactively linked to evidence-based treatment recommendations, aides workflow and links to additional patient and provider care resources.
53 Meulepas et al. 2007 [30] On the schedule: NA NA
To the visit: Diabetes Support Service (DSS) offered logistic support to providers and called up patients for laboratory testing (repeated 3-monthly and annual), foot examination, fundus photography and appointments with the dietician and diabetes nurse.
Patient information: Laboratory results sent to provider.
54 Meulepas et al. 2008 [31] On the schedule: NA NA
To the visit: DSS called patients for laboratory testing (repeated 3-monthly and annual), foot examination, fundus photography and appointments with the dietician and diabetes nurse.
Patient information: Practice nurse reviewed information and gave lifestyle advice to patient, traced risk factors and set short term goals with patient during quarterly visits.
55 Moattari et al. 2013 [80] On the schedule: NA NA
To the visit: NA
Patient information: Patients are asked to enter their self-monitored blood glucose level, kind and dose of insulin they used, and the amount and kind of daily food intake to the website every day. Healthcare team (physician, nurse, nutritionist) had access to patient’s files. The care team answers patients’ questions through the website and provides recommendations via email. Patients who need immediate response can ask questions using phone or SMS.
56 Moorman et al. 2012 [81] On the schedule: NA NA
To the visit: NA
Patient information: Patients were provided with a blank SMBG log at provider appointment in a pharmacist-run diabetic clinic and asked to return the completed log after two weeks via mail, fax, or telephone communication. Those patients in the post intervention cohort were sent reminder mailings one week before logs were due.
57 Musacchio et al. 2011 [82] On the schedule: NA NA
To the visit: NA
Patient information: Diabetologists, nurses and dietitians empower patient self-management, using patient clinic history in their EHR. Phone and internet utilized for patient communication.
58 Nes et al. 2012 [83] On the schedule: NA NA
To the visit: NA
Patient information: Patients were given access to web-based diaries housed on a secure server where they (1) registered their fasting blood glucose level in the morning, and eating behavior, medication compliance, exercise, and emotions three times per day; (2) received individualized situational feedback based on acceptance and commitment therapy; and (3) had access to mindfulness and relaxation exercises via audio file.
59 Piette et al. 2000 [84] On the schedule: NA NA
To the visit: NA
Patient information: Biweekly automated assessment calls to patients regarding: SMBG levels, symptoms, foot problems, chest pain, breathing problems, self-care problems. Nurse educator reviewed information and prioritize patients. Follow-up calls to discuss the reported problems, strategies for resolution, and education about importance of self-care, health monitoring, weight control, nutrition, and exercise.
60 Rai et al. 2011 [18] On the schedule: Automated outreach communication message to proactively motivate patients to schedule appointments. NA
To the visit: NA
Patient information: NA
61 Ralston et al. 2009 [38] On the schedule: NA NA
To the visit: NA
Patient information: Intervention group utilized web-based program to review online medical record, upload SMBG levels, create action plan, and exchange secure email with care manager. Care manager reviewed patient action plans, SMBGs and laboratory results at least 1×/week, adjusted hypoglycemic medications, guided patient health behavior, self-management support, and conferred with provider. Web program provided single-page summary of patient clinical diabetes information.
62 Ryan et al. 2013 [85] On the schedule: NA Participants were given desktop computer, glucometer and test strips, Internet connection at home, periodic refresher training, and telephone user support.
To the visit: NA
Patient information: Patients are asked to upload blood sugar levels and log into diabetes relationship management package. The web-based application provides educational material and motivational messages; access to providers for education, communication, and peer networking; chat with registered nurses. Nurses can view patients’ electronic medical records while chatting with patients.
63 Sacco et al. 2009 [48] On the schedule: NA NA
To the visit: NA
Patient information: Intervention group received weekly phone coaching for goal setting and self-management, SMBG testing, medication, nutrition, exercise, foot care, stress management, eye exam, dental care, and vaccinations.
64 Sadur et al. 1999 [22] On the schedule: Scheduled 2 hour cluster visits involving 10–18 patients every month for 6 mos. NA
To the visit: NA
Patient information: Intervention group received multidisciplinary care managed by diabetes nurse educator, two diabetologists, dietitian, behaviorist, and pharmacist. Nurse reviewed self-management by telephone twice monthly to every 3 days.
65 Seto et al. 2012 [16] On the schedule: Patients are contacted by telephone to schedule follow-up appointments. Cost-benefit analysis of implementing and maintaining the registry
To the visit: Reminder phone calls are made 24 h before the appointment. For the patients who did not return, the medical assistants called the patients or sent them a letter inquiring about access barriers.
Patient information: NA
66 DM Smith et al. 1987 [27] On the schedule: NA Mailed educational booklet
To the visit: Intervention group was mailed billfold-sized card with their provider and nurse name, clinic location, office hours, and telephone number, and single-page description on how to use card for appointments, medication refills and health problems with information of diabetic warning signs. Patient received a postcard reminder a week before each scheduled return visit. If patient missed an appointment intense follow-up by telephone and letter was implemented until another visit scheduled.
Patient information: NA
67 KE Smith et al. 2004 [86] On the schedule: Intervention group scheduled for baseline, 3 mos and 6 mos visits as routine care. NA
To the visit: NA
Patient information: Intervention group entered SMBG values, exercise logs, and communicated with provider via Web-based diabetes management application (MyCareTeam).
68 Song et al. 2009 [87] On the schedule: NA NA
To the visit: NA
Patient information: Intervention group utilized website with public space with diabetes self-management information, secure space to download SMBG values, calculator of daily caloric intake, physical activity log, stress measurement, feedback from specialist and FAQ area.
69 Stone et al. 2012 [88] On the schedule: NA NA
To the visit: NA
Patient information: (I.1) Active care management to lower intensity care coordination (ACM-to-CC), (I.2) Active care management to care coordination with continued home telemonitoring (ACM-to-CCHT), (I.3) Care coordination to continued care coordination (CC-to-CC), (I.4) Care coordination to usual care (CC-to-UC). Care coordination includes monthly educational phone calls, and home telemonitoring includes daily transmission of blood glucose, blood pressure, and weight.
70 Subramanian et al. 2009 [23] On the schedule: OA clinics offered same-day scheduling for patients. NA
To the visit: NA
Patient information: NA
71 Tang et al. 2013 [89] On the schedule: NA NA
To the visit: NA
Patient information: The interventions included: i) wireless upload of home glucometer readings to EHR, ii) comprehensive patient-specific diabetes summary status report which includes patient’s personalized action plan and treatment goals, diabetes complications risk, monitoring tests, medications, and health maintenance schedule, iii) nutrition and exercise logs, iv) insulin record; v) online messaging with the patient’s healthcare team, vi) nurse care manager and dietitian providing timely advice and medication management, and vii) personalized educational text and videos dispensed electronically by the care team. Primary care physicians were kept up to date about clinical changes through the shared EHR.
72 Thomas et al. 2007 [26] On the schedule: NA NA
To the visit: Letters recommending appropriate surveillance tests automatically sent quarterly to patient without HbA1c within 6 mos or LDL within 12 mos.
Patient information: Audit, feedback and patient reminder intervention utilized computerized diabetes registry to provide physicians with patient information.
73 Tildesley et al. 2010 [90] On the schedule: NA NA
To the visit: NA
Patient information: Intervention group uploaded SMBG levels every 2 weeks to web. Web-based system used to input medications, set alarms, view summary of SMBG levels, and send message to endocrinologist. Endocrinologist views data and, sends orders for insulin dosage and test frequency. Patients asked to perform laboratory test and visit endocrinologist every 3 mos.
74 Weber et al. 2008 [53] On the schedule: NA Monetary incentive to providers for improvements in meeting evidence-based guidelines.
To the visit: NA
Patient information: Assess ADA standards of care with EHR (EPIC). Intervention included health maintenance alerts to provider, best-practice-alerts, and nurse rooming tool.
75 Yeh et al. 2006 [33] On the schedule: NA NA
To the visit: Patient-Oriented education management system for diabetes using the Internet (POEM) sent reminders to intervention group 1 week before follow-up visit, HbA1c test period if more than 3 mos, and emergency calls for abnormal laboratory test results using emails and SMS.
Patient information: System automatically download patient’s records, prescriptions, laboratory test results, patient education materials and organizes into case folders based on patients’ medical service history from hospital for provider use at outpatient visit.
76 Yoo et al. 2009 [91] On the schedule: NA NA
To the visit: NA
Patient information: Phone reminder is used to remind patient to measure blood glucose and BP twice a day. Device attached to cellphone conducts glucose measurements and automatically sends the results to a central database. Automated messages of encouragement, reminders and recommendations are sent back to patients. SMS is used to receive exercise time and send information on healthy diet and exercise methods. Website is used to follow the blood glucose levels, blood pressure, and weight changes, and send individualized recommendations to patients when needed.
77 Yoon and HS Kim 2008 [92] On the schedule: NA NA
To the visit: NA
Patient information: Intervention group accessed website by cellular phone or wired internet sending SMBG values and drug information. Patient information automatically displayed on individual electronic chart on homepage. Patients could view recommendations from provider and laboratory test results. Recommendations sent to patient weekly, by SMS through cellular phone and wired internet.