Skip to main content

Table 2 Changes in HbA1c

From: The impact of interventions on appointment and clinical outcomes for individuals with diabetes: a systematic review

  Author On schedule To visit With information HbA1c at baseline Change in HbA1c P-value Comparisons tested
Intervention group Control group Intervention group Control group
39 Kirsh et al. 2007 [12]    10.4 9.8 −1.44 0.30 .002 Group × Time interaction @18 mo.
70 Subramanian et al. 2009 [23]    7.7 7.5 −0.19 −0.03 ≤0.05 Group × Time interaction @1 year
3 Avdal et al. 2011 [61]    8.0 8.1 −0.5 NA ≤.010 Time effect @6 mo.
NA 0.05 NS Time effect @6 mo.
5 Benhamou et al. 2007 [63]    8.3 8.2 −0.14 0.12 .097 Group effect @6 mo.
7 Bond et al. 2007 [36]    7.0 7.1 −0.6 −0.1 0.01 Group effect @6 mo.
8 Carter et al. 2011 [37]    9.0 8.8 −2.18 −0.9 ≤.050 Group effect @9 mo.
9 Cavan et al. 2003 [65]    9.7 NA −1.7a NA ≤.005 Patients with a disease duration ≤ 10 years
Time effect @2 year
9.5 NA −0.3a NA NS Patients with a disease duration > 10 years
Time effect @2 year
12 Cho et al. 2009 [66] (phone)    8.3 NA −1.1 NA ≤.010 Time effect @3 mo.
Cho et al. 2009 [66] (internet)    7.6 NA −0.6 NA <.010 Time effect @3 mo.
13 Cho et al. 2011 [67]    8.0 8.0 −0.5 −0.2 <0.01 Time effect @3 mo.
18 Dijkstra et al. 2005 [54]    8.1 8.0 −0.3 0.2 ≤.001 Group effect @1 year
21 Farmer et al. 2005 [68]    9.2 9.3 −0.6a −0.4a 0.33 Group effect @9 mo.
24 Glasgow et al. 2003 [70] (peer support)    7.54 7.35 −0.12 0.33 ≤.05 Group × Time interaction @10 mo.
Glasgow et al. 2003 [70] (tailored self-management)    7.45 7.43 −0.03 0.24 NS Group × Time interaction @10 mo.
26 Grant et al. 2008 [55]    7.3 7.4 −0.16 −0.26 0.62 Group effect @1 year
27 Harno et al. 2006 [71]    7.82 8.21 −0.50 NA S p ≤ .05 Group effect @1 year
NA −0.38 S
33 HS Kim et al. 2006 [42] “Impact of a nurse short message service intervention…”    8.1 NA −1.10 NA .006 Time effect @3 mo.
34 HS Kim 2007 [39] “A randomized controlled trial of a nurse short-message…”    8.09 7.59 −1.15 0.07 .005 Group × Time interaction @3 mo.
35 HS Kim 2007 [40] “Impact of web-based nurse’s education…”    6.92 6.71 −0.21 NA 0.20 Patients with a baseline HbA1c < 7 %
Time effect @3 mo.
NA 0.43 .034 Patients with a baseline HbA1c < 7 %
Time effect @3 mo.
9.35 8.24 −2.15 NA ≤.007 Patients with a baseline HbA1c ≥ 7 %
Time effect @3 mo.
NA 0.22 NS Patients with a baseline HbA1c ≥ 7 %
Time effect @3 mo.
36 HS Kim and Jeong 2007 [41] “A nurse short message service by cellular phone…”    8.09 7.59 −1.05a 0.11a .008 Group × Time interaction @6 mo.
37 HS Kim and Song 2008 [43] “Technological intervention for obese patients with type 2 diabetes”    8.16 7.66 −1.09a 0a .043 Group × Time interaction @6 mo.
−1.09a NA ≤.050 Time effect @6 mo.
NA 0a NS Time effect @6 mo.
38 SI Kim and HS Kim 2008 [73] “Effectiveness of mobile and internet intervention…”    8.16 7.66 −1.49a 0.53a .017 Group × Time interaction @12 mo.
−1.49a NA ≤.050 Time effect @12 mo.
NA 0.53a NS Time effect @12mo.
39 Kwon et al. 2004 [74]    7.5 NA −0.5 NA ≤.003 Time effect @3 mo.
40 Kwon et al. 2004 [45]    7.59 7.19 −0.54 0.33 <0.05 Group effect @3 mo.
−0.54 NA ≤.050 Time effect @3 mo.
NA 0.33 NS Time effect @3 mo.
44 Lorig et al. 2010 [76] (treatment, no reinforcement)    6.5 6.40 −0.03 0.13 0.04 Group effect @6 mo.
Lorig et al. 2010 [76] (treatment and reinforcement)    6.43 0.02 0.13 0.16 Group effect @6 mo.
Lorig et al. 2010 [76] (treatment combined)    6.47 −0.01 0.13 0.04 Group effect @6 mo.
46 McCarrier et al. 2006 [77]    7.99 8.05 −0.37 0.11 0.16 Group effect @12 mo.
49 McMahon et al. 2005 [78]    10.0 9.9 −1.6 −1.2 ≤.050 Group × Time interaction @12 mo.
50 McMahon et al. 2012 [47] (online care)    9.6 NA −1.3 NA <.0001 Time effect @1 year
NS Group effect between online care and usual care with web-training @1 year
McMahon et al. 2012 [47] (telephone care)    9.9 NA −1.5 NA <.0001 Time effect @1 year
NS Group effect between telephone care and usual care with web-training @1 year
McMahon et al. 2012 [47] (usual care with web-training)    10.1 NA −1.7 NA <.0001 Time effect @1 year
52 Meigs et al. 2003 [49]    8.4 8.1 −0.23 0.14 0.09 Group × Time interaction @12 mo.
55 Moattari et al. 2013 [80]    9.1 9.4 −2.0 −0.6 <.001 Between group @3 mo.
56 Moorman et al. 2012 [81]    8.9 8.9 NA NA NS Between prospective (intervention) vs. retrospective (control) group
57 Musacchio et al. 2011 [82]    6.6 NA 0.2 NA NP Patients with a baseline HbA1c < 7.5 % @12 mo.
7.7 NA −0.4 NA NP Patients with a baseline HbA1c between 7.5 % and 8 % @12 mo.
8.3 NA −0.9 NA NP Patients with a baseline HbA1c between 8 % and 9 % @12 mo.
10.0 NA −2.2 NA NP Patients with a baseline HbA1c > 9 % @12 mo.
58 Nes et al. 2012 [83]    7.4 NA −0.4 NA NP @3 mo.
61 Ralston et al. 2009 [38]    8.2 7.9 −0.9 0.2 0.01 Group × Time interaction @12 mo.
62 Ryan et al. 2013 [85]    7.5 NA −0.6 NA 0.04 Time effect @ 13 mo.
63 Sacco et al. 2009 [48]    8.4 8.5 −1.0 −0.7 NS Group effect @6 mo.
67 KE Smith et al. 2004 [86]    10.95 NA −2.22 NA 0.001 Time effect @6 mo.
68 Song et al. 2009 [87]    7.6 7.7 −0.8a −0.4a 0.26 Group × Time interaction @3 mo.
69 Stone et al. 2012 [88] (Active care management to care coordination with home telemonitoring)    7.77 NA 0.26 NA NS Time effect @ 6 mo.
Stone et al. 2012 [88] (Active care management to care coordination)    7.97 NA 0.19 NA NS Time effect @ 6 mo.
Stone et al. 2012 [88] (Care coordination to care coordination)    8.56 NA 0.15 NA NS Time effect @ 6 mo.
Stone et al. 2012 [88] (Care coordination to usual care)    8.53 NA 0.31 NA NS Time effect @ 6 mo.
71 Tang et al. 2013 [89]    9.2 9.3 −1.1 −1.0 0.13 Between group @1 year
73 Tildesley et al. 2010 [90]    8.8 8.5 −1.2a −0.1a ≤.050 Group effect @6 mo.
−1.2a NA ≤.001 Time effect @6 mo.
NA −0.1a 0.51 Time effect @6 mo.
76 Yoo et al. 2009 [91]    7.6 7.4 −0.5 0.2 ≤.001 Group × Time interaction @3 mo.
77 Yoon and HS Kim 2008 [92]    8.09 7.59 −1.32a 0.81a ≤.001 Group × Time interaction @12 mo.
65 Seto et al. 2012 [16]   7.3 NA −0.3 NA <.001 Time effect @ 8 mo.
4 Bailie et al. 2004 [62]   9.0 NA −0.2a NA 0.23 Time effect @3 years
11 Cho et al. 2006 [57]   7.7 7.5 −1.0a −0.1a ≤.050 Group effect @30 mo.
16 de Grauw et al. 2002 [19]   8.2 NA −1.1 NA ≤.001 Unpaired t-test @6 year
30 Jones and Curry 2006 [50]   7.25 7.13 0.06 −0.18 0.24 Group effect within 16 months
45 MacLean et al. 2009 [20]   7.11 7.03 0.05 −0.02 0.08 Group × Time interaction @32 months
64 Sadur et al. 1999 [22]   9.7 9.6 −1.3 −0.22 ≤.0001 Group effect @6 mo. or beyond
28 Holbrook et al. 2009 [28]   7.0 7.1 −0.2 0.2 0.03 Group effect @6 mo.
29 Hurwitz et al. 1993 [72]   10.4 10.3 −0.4 0.3 NP Group effect @2 year
48 McDiarmid et al. 2001 [51]   8.0 NA −0.1 NA NP Time effect @1 year
53 Meulepas et al. 2007 [30]   7.2 7.4 0 0.6 ≤ .050 Group effect @2 year after intervention (baseline 1 year before intervention)
54 Meulepas et al. 2008 [31]   7.3 7.2 −0.2 0.1 <0.05 Group × Time interaction @3 years
72 Thomas et al. 2007 [26]   7.3 7.4 −0.02 −0.01 0.83 Group × Time interaction @ 1 year
75 Yeh et al. 2006 [33]   9.03 8.95 −1.65 −0.92 0.01 Group effect @8 mo.
42 Lin et al. 2007 [29] 7.8 7.7 −0.6 NA ≤.050 Time effect @3 year
NA −0.3 0.24 Time effect @3 year
  1. NS Non-significant (p-value>0.05), S Significant (p-value≤0.05), NA Not applicable, NP Not provided
  2. Results are differences in mean before and after implementation of intervention except those indicated with the following superscripts
  3. aMultiple measurements are presented over time after the intervention in the paper, but the last measurement is used to calculate the difference in this table