Skip to main content

Advertisement

Table 4 Methods used to identify factors associated with high performance

From: High performing hospitals: a qualitative systematic review of associated factors and practical strategies for improvement

Study Data collection Participant numbers and sampling method Participant professions (N)
Bradley et al. (2006) [10] Interviews Interviews Interviews
- Open-ended interviews conducted with individuals and groups, lasting 1–1.5 h - Total participants: 122 - Physicians (23), Nurses (37), Administrators (44), Quality management staff (8), Clinical/support staff (10)
- Participants per site: approximately 10-12
- Participants at HP sites: 122
- Sampling: Nonprobability
Mannion et al. (2005) [44] Interview Interviews Interviews
- Semi-structured - Total participants: Approximately 60a - Chief Executive and Medical Director
Document review - Participants per site: 8-11
- Commission for Health Improvement report and internal documents - Participants at HP sites: 40a
Site Visits - Sampling: NS
Sautter et al. (2007) [37] Interviews Interviews Interviews
- 1.5 h - Total participants, Participants per site and Participants at HP sites: NS - Senior hospital leadership, chief cardiologist and Medical chief of staff
- Semi-structured - Sampling: Nonprobability - Physician (6), Nurse (26), Administration (21), Clinical staff (4)
- Total participants: 57
- Conducted with individuals and groups - Participants per site: NS
- Participants at HP sites: 38a
- Sampling: Nonprobability
Cherlin et al. (2013) [112] Interviews Interviews Interviews
- Standard discussion guide used for 1 h interview
Site visits
- 1-2 day visits to review previous years’ activities.
Landman et al. (2013) [32] Interviews Interviews Interviews
- Standard interview guide used - Total participants: 85 - Physician (n = 17), Nurse (n = 29), Administration (n = 32), Clinical staff (n = 7)
Site visits - Participants per site: NS
- Emergency Medical Services medical director during EMS training session (1 site). - Participants at HP sites: 46a
- Sampling: Nonprobability
Rangachari (2008) [31] Interview Interviews Interviews
- Semi-structured interview conducted with individuals and groups, lasting 0.75-1 h - Total participants: Approximately 24a - Hospital administratorsa, Physician leadersa, Coding managersa
Survey  
- Online survey on knowledge exchange related to quality measurement - Participants per site: Approximately 6a
- Participants at HP sites: Approximately 12a
- Sampling method: NS
Survey
- Total participants: 65
- Participants per site: NS
- Participants at HP sites: 45
- Sampling: Nonprobability
Baumann et al. (2007) [47] Interviews Interviews Interviews
- Topic guide - Total participants: 42 - Directors of nursing, Service managers, Social services team managers, Lead hospital discharge coordinators, Care managers, Discharge facilitators
- Participants per site: (hospitals/acute trusts) 14a
- Participants at HP sites: 14a
- Sampling: Nonprobability
Rose et al. (2012) [45] Interviews Interviews Interviews
- Semi-structured (lasting 0.3-1 h) - Total participants: 56 - Direct-care ACC staff (25), ACC support staff (6), Pharmacy administration (11), Physicians (6), Other staff (7), Supervisor of clerks (1)
Observations - Participants per site: NS
- Approximately 4 h of clinical care. - Participants at HP sites: 31a
Documents - Sampling: Nonprobability
- ACC-related documents
Keroack et al. (2007) [34] Documents Interviews Interviews
- Internal documents - Total participants: NS - CEO, Governing board members, Chief medical officer, Chief nursing officer, Chief financial officer, Clinical department chairs, Division chiefs, Nursing unit directors, Medical unit directors, Residents, Medical and nursing staff
Site visits - Participants per site: “dozens”
- Document verification and information gathering (interviews) during 1.5 days - Participants at HP sites: NS
Interviews - Sampling: NS
- Open ended questions
Hockey and Bates (2010) [42] Interviews Interviews Interviews
- Semi-structured, 0.75-1 h interview - Total participants: 17 - Senior residents (2), Senior internists (3), Cardiologist (1), Pulmonologist (1), Nephrologist (1), Hospitalists (4), General internists (5)
- Participants per site: NS
- Participants at HP sites: NS
- Sampling: Nonprobability
Adelman (2012) [41] Document review Interviews Interviews
- MBNQA/Baldrige award application. - Total participants: 20 - CEO, Baldrige lead for the hospital, Clinical services area director, Frontline manager/clinical services area supervisor, Frontline nurse.
Interviews - Participants per site: 5
- Semi-structured - Participants at HP sites: 20
- Sampling: NS
VanDeusen Lukas et al. (2010) [36] Interviews Interviews Interviews
- Semi-structured - Total participants: 137a - Director, Chief of staff, Nurse executive, Associate director, Clinical redesign team members, Clinical redesign team leaders, Project improvement advisor, Front-line staff
- Participants per site: NS
- Participants at HP sites: 71a
- Sampling: NS
Kramer et al. (2008) [40] Interviews (three types) Interviews Interviews
- 2-h, group orientation interviews - Total participants: 906a - Nurse manager, Director group, Staff nurses, Nurse managers, Physicians, Chief nursing officer, Chief operating officer, Departmental representatives
- Individual interviews - Participants per site: NS
- Semi-structured expert interviews - Participants at HP sites: 906a
Observations - Sampling: NS/Nonprobability
- 26 council meetings and lunch meetings (6 hospitals)
Operational and evaluation data
- Internal documents and CWEQII tool
Parsons and Cornett (2011) [35] Interviews Interviews Interviews
- 1 h - Total participants: 15 - Chief Nurse Officers (15)
- Participants per site: 1a
- Participants at HP sites: 15
- Sampling: Nonprobability
Curry et al. (2011) [38] Interviews Interviews Interviews
- 1 h - Total participants: 158 - Physicians (19), Nurses (52), Administration (65), Clinical staff (22)
- Standard discussion guide used - Participants per site: 14 (average)
Site visits - Participants at HP sites: 109a
- Debriefing sessions (organizational psychologist and site visit teams) - Sampling: NS
Puoane et al. (2008) [33] Observations Interviews Interviews
- Structured approach to observing ward procedures during 3 days per hospital - Total participants: 32a - Matrons, Hospital superintendent, Doctors, Sister-in-charge or her deputy, Professional and enrolled nurses
Interviews - Participants per site: 8a Focus groups
- Semi-structured interviews (0.75-1 h) - Participants at HP sites: 16a - Nurses (various categories)
Focus groups - Sampling method: NS
Quantitative measures Focus groups
- Hospital environment data - Approx 8 participants per focus groupa
- Recruitment: NS
Stanger et al. (2012) [43] Interviews Interviews Interviews
- 1 h - Total participants: NS (7 interviews) - Transfusion laboratory managers
- Open-ended - Participants per site: NS
- Participants at HP sites: NS (7 interviews)
- Sampling: Nonprobability
Kane et al. (2009) [109] Interviews Interviews Interviews
- 0.75-2 h - Total participants: NS (73 interviews) Board members and CEOs
- Semi-structured - Participants per site: 5–7 (unclear)
- Participants at HP sites: NS (44 interviews)
- Sampling: Nonprobability
Olson et al. (2011) [48] Interviews Interviews Interviews
- Semi-structured - Total participants: 13 - Stroke coordinator, Stroke manager, Neurologist, Radiologist, ED nurse manager, Nurse manager, Pharmacist, Physician
- Participants per site: 1-4
- Participants at HP sites: 13
- Sampling: Nonprobability
  1. HP = high performing
  2. NS = information not stated in paper
  3. aClarification sought and provided by corresponding author via email