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Table 2 Observable correlates of Nonurgent ED utilization

From: Travel distances, socioeconomic characteristics, and health disparities in nonurgent and frequent use of Hospital Emergency Departments in South Carolina: a population-based observational study

  (1) (2) (3) (4) (5)
Variables NEPCT Log NE Log PCT Log PCP Log EUA
Age      
≤1 18.6** −29.7** 37.5** −94.3** −52.8**
  (0.541) (0.849) (1.25) (2.08) (2.58)
1 – 17 −2.21** −9.06** 8.47** −71.2** −45.3**
  (0.473) (0.590) (0.866) (1.67) (1.66)
18 – 34 4.29** 7.10** 1.45** −38.7** −19.8**
  (0.485) (0.373) (0.436) (1.02) (1.63)
35 – 64 4.25** 6.82** −4.93** −11.1** −15.0**
  (0.325) (0.305) (0.397) (0.778) (0.988)
Gender      
Female 9.62** 0.405* 2.15** −7.52** −5.39**
  (0.142) (0.170) (0.382) (0.447) (1.19)
Race/Ethnicity    
African American 8.68** 1.07** −0.453 2.24** −9.31**
  (0.266) (0.115) (0.344) (0.635) (0.544)
Asian 2.62** −2.12** 2.39** 0.0803 1.32
  (0.735) (0.665) (0.890) (1.77) (2.05)
Native American 7.03** −0.773 1.85 −2.58 −6.62**
  (1.50) (1.04) (1.04) (3.92) (1.42)
Hispanic 8.24** −3.16** 3.76** −8.76** 0.190
  (0.474) (0.297) (0.738) (1.17) (1.00)
Other race 4.80** −1.87** 2.44** −6.78** 1.80
  (0.476) (0.387) (0.490) (1.10) (1.35)
Expected source of payment   
Self-pay 1.04 0.715* 2.39** −1.83* −16.4**
  (0.611) (0.331) (0.389) (0.763) (1.19)
Medicare 2.99** −0.982** 0.809 15.2** −0.628
  (0.446) (0.334) (0.507) (0.844) (1.50)
Medicaid 6.17** 2.00** 2.22** 0.255 −6.75**
  (0.585) (0.407) (0.447) (0.927) (1.34)
HMO 1.02* −1.74** −0.242 −1.07 4.72**
  (0.386) (0.361) (0.598) (1.36) (.0.634)
Other payer −8.26** 0.894 −0.705 7.22** −4.93
  (1.74) (0.511) (0.702) (1.65) (2.68)
Travel distance to FQHC by payment source
Commercial insurance × FQHC distance 0.0386 −0.0150 0.0102 0.0477 0.172**
  (0.0224) (0.0158) (0.0183) (0.0363) (0.0512)
Self-pay × FQHC distance 0.0209 0.0106 0.0328 0.00681 0.113*
  (0.0288) (0.0159) (0.0241) (0.0368) (0.0475)
Medicare × FQHC distance 0.0636** 0.00615 0.0520** 0.0047 0.0570
  (0.0177) (0.0194) (0.0183) (0.0520) (0.0542)
Medicaid × FQHC distance 0.0268 −0.00777 0.0451 0.0556 0.0447
  (0.0164) (0.0159) (0.0280) (0.0397) (0.0336)
HMO × FQHC distance 0.0596 0.0365* 0.00984 0.125* 0.0421
  (0.0328) (0.0176) (0.0322) (0.0525) (0.0548)
Other payer × FQHC distance −0.106 0.0258 −0.0160 −0.122* 0.0952
  (0.0813) (0.0216) (0.0334) (0.0605) (0.107)
Travel distance to ED by payment source      
Commercial insurance × ED distance −0.0432** −0.0118** −0.0128 0.0184 0.0691**
  (0.00682) (0.00350) (0.00817) (0.0139) (0.0108)
Self-pay × ED distance −0.0699** 0.0219** −0.0220** 0.0299* 0.0649**
  (0.00703) (0.00485) (0.00713) (0.0123) (0.0129)
Medicare × ED distance 0.00524 −0.00612 0.00664 −0.0251 0.0422*
  (0.00859) (0.00811) (0.0113) (0.0232) (0.0177)
Medicaid × ED distance −0.00974 −0.00335 −0.0357** 0.0888** 0.106**
  (0.00809) (0.00686) (0.0130) (0.0242) (0.0190)
HMO × ED distance −0.0392** −0.00919 −0.0231 0.0323 0.0613**
  (0.00819) (0.00648) (0.0150) (0.0328) (0.0202)
Other payer × ED distance −0.103** 0.00470 0.0163 −0.0707 0.0487
  (0.0191) (0.0107) (0.0147) (0.0364) (0.0416)
Constant 90.2** −44.2 −51.7** −65.8** −55.5**
  (0.701) (7485) (1.35) (1.61) (2.48)
Observations 6,592,501 2,619,932 4,184,293 1,507,037 2,556,219
R-squared 0.041 0.066 0.018 0.125 0.042
Number of hospitals 64 64 64 64 64
  1. For legibility, all decimal points on the coefficients have been moved two places to the right and can be interpreted as probability percentage points. NEPCT is an indicator variable that is equal to 1 if either NE or PCT for the ED visit has a probability value greater than 0. All regressions control for day of week using a series of indicator variables for Monday to Saturday, leaving Sunday as the reference day
  2. Robust standard errors in parentheses
  3. ** p < 0.01, * p < 0.05