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Table 4 Distribution of households’ health-related expenditures across the type of care

From: Economic consequences of ill-health for households in northern rural India

  Proportion of householdsª Proportion of household health spendinga Direct costsb Indirect costsb
Medical fees Medicines and laboratory Transportation and food costs for patient and caregiver Productivity losses for patient and caregiver
Outpatient care for chronic diseases 49% 43.9%     
Average proportion of total costs (%)    12% 74% 9% 5%
Average spending (INR)    118 1220 159 100
Average spending in (US$)c    (2.66) (27.50) (3.58) (2.25)
Standard deviation    257 2825 630 435
Outpatient care for acute conditions 58% 42.7%     
Average proportion of total costs (%)    33% 51% 9% 8%
Average spending (INR)    112 338 67 66
Average spending (in US$)c    (2.52) (7.62) (1.51) 1.49)
Standard deviation    208 1404 275 237
Hospitalization 15% 8.8%     
Average proportion of total costs (%)    67% 13% 12% 8%
Average spending (INR)    978 212 158 110
Average spending (in US$)c    (22.05) (4.78) (5.82) (2.48)
Standard deviation    1208 559 320 229
Maternity care 12% 4.6%     
Average proportion of total costs (%)    15% 2% 61% 23%
Average spending (INR)    56 2 96 42
Average spending (in US$)c    (1.26) (0.05) (2.16) (0.95)
Standard deviation    198 9 179 137
  1. Notes: Composition of monthly average household health expenditures (in INR). We include interests that had to be paid on loans taken to finance health care related expenditures in the productivity losses. On average, these represent 8.5% of foregone earnings.
  2. ªamong those households reporting any kind of health expenditures bshare of total household health expenditures of the specific type of care cusing the 2010 exchange rate.