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Table 1 Baseline characteristics of atypical and typical cohorts before matching and after matching (N = 1131)

From: Health care resource utilization and direct medical costs for patients with schizophrenia initiating treatment with atypical versus typical antipsychotics in Tianjin, China

Variable Before matching After matching
Atypical cohort N = 648 Typical cohort N = 483 p-value Standardized difference Atypical cohort N = 400 Typical cohort N = 400 p-value Standardized difference
Demographic characteristics         
Mean age (in years) [Mean(SD)] 51.3 (13.0) 52.6 (11.9) 0.081 −0.106 52.1 (11.8) 51.7 (11.7) 0.144 0.035
Female [n(%)] 357 (55.1%) 267 (55.3%) 0.950 −0.004 226 (56.5%) 224 (56.0%) 0.715 0.010
Retired [n(%)] 338 (52.2%) 282 (58.4%) 0.037 −0.125 222 (55.5%) 228 (57.0%) 0.109 −0.030
Concomitant medications [n(%)]         
Anxiolytics 74 (11.4%) 57 (11.8%) 0.843 −0.012 18 (4.5%) 22 (5.5%) 0.541 −0.046
Anticholinergics 28 (4.3%) 15 (3.1%) 0.290 0.064 1 (0.3%) 1 (0.3%) 1.000 <0.001
Antidepressants 24 (3.7%) 22 (4.6%) 0.473 −0.043 1 (0.3%) 4 (1.0%) 0.375 −0.095
Sedative-hypnotics 9 (1.4%) 17 (3.5%) 0.018 −0.138 1 (0.3%) 3 (0.8%) 0.625 −0.071
Mood stabilizers 7 (1.1%) 6 (1.2%) 0.787 −0.015 2 (0.5%) 1 (0.3%) 1.000 0.041
Mental comorbidities [n(%)]         
Sleep disorder 38 (5.9%) 29 (6.0%) 0.921 −0.006 14 (3.5%) 10 (2.5%) 0.481 0.059
Depression 15 (2.3%) 16 (3.3%) 0.309 −0.060 1 (0.3%) 4 (1.0%) 0.375 −0.095
Anxiety disorder 8 (1.2%) 9 (1.9%) 0.462 −0.051 3 (0.8%) 2 (0.5%) 1.000 0.032
Other psychotic disorder# 6 (0.9%) 3 (0.6%) 0.740 0.035 1 (0.3%) 0 (0.0%) 1.000 0.071
Resource utilization and cost (prior 3 months)        
Mean number of hospitalizations 0.02 (0.15) 0.05 (0.25) 0.028 −0.128 0.01 (0.07) 0.01 (0.07) 1.000 <0.001
Mean number of outpatient visits 0.17 (0.58) 0.22 (0.83) 0.332 −0.069 0.08 (0.34) 0.05 (0.36) 0.298 0.071
Direct medical cost ($) [Mean(SD)] 20 (124) 42 (200) 0.027 −0.129 4 (45) 3 (46) 0.287 0.021
  1. Continuous variables were compared using two-sample t-tests for unmatched samples and paired t-tests for matched samples; categorical variables were compared using chi-square tests or Fisher's exact tests for unmatched samples and McNemar’s tests for matched samples. P-values and standardized differences in bold indicates statistical significance.
  2. # Other psychotic disorder corresponded to any other mental disorders (ICD-10 F00-99) except sleep disorder, depression and anxiety disorder, which included mania, bipolar disorder, schizoaffective disorders, disorders of adult personality and behavior, mental retardation, etc.