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Table 4 Factor analysis based on the reduced ABQ*

From: Validation of the Adherence Barriers Questionnaire – an instrument for identifying potential risk factors associated with medication-related non-adherence

  Factor 1 (subscale of intentional NA risk) component loading Factor 2 (subscale of medication-/health care system-related NA risk) component loading Factor 3 (subscale of unintentional NA risk) component loading
Eigenvalue 4.459 1.864 1.080
Variance explained 31.850% 13.317% 7.716%
Item 1: “I fully understand what my doctor, nurse or the people at my pharmacy have explained to me so far”.    0.672
Item 2: „I can mention the names of my medicines and their scope without hesitation”.    0.678
Item 3: „I trust my doctor and agree to my therapy plan together with him”. 0.795   
Item 4: “My medications help me only if I take them absolutely regularly as recommended”. 0.775   
Item 7: „I take my medicines every day automatically at a fixed time or on fixed occasions”. 0.670   
Item 8: „I feel that co-payments for medicines are a great burden”.   0.602  
Item 9: „I frequently forget things on an everyday basis”.    0.749
Item 10: „Generally I often feel bad, and sometimes I feel discouraged and depressed”.    0.763
Item 11: „I frequently have problems taking my medications or it is difficult for me to keep me on the accompanying conditions of the medication intake”.   0.755  
Item 12: „I have to overcome obstacles to my healthcare”.   0.688  
Item 13: „I really would need help on an everyday basis (and particularly related to my treatment with medicines). But I do not get any help.”   0.796  
Item 14: „I am really frightened of the side effects of my medicines”.   0.677  
Item 15a: „In case I already noticed or in case I would notice side effects related to my medicines: I have talked or would talk to my doctor about them as soon as possible”. 0.659   
Item 15b: „In case I already noticed or in case I would notice side effects related to my medicines: I have stopped/would stop my medications or took/would take less of them”. 0.385   
  1. *Extraction Method: Principal Component Analysis, Rotation Method: Promax.
  2. ABQ: Adherence Barriers Questionnaire, NA: Non-Adherence.