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Table 3 Safety climate in the hospitals by job-type, unadjusted (PPR)

From: Survey on patient safety climate in public hospitals in China

  Type of worker   
Scales Physicians Nurses Managers Others All χ 2
Senior leadership 6.11 4.07 3.27 7.91 5.57 228.09*
Resources for safety 8.91 8.80 0.96 10.17 8.91 76.81***
Facility characteristics 6.72 6.55 2.92 8.97 7.05 31.32***
Workgroup leadership 7.23 5.04 1.02 6.99 6.04 43.84***
Workgroup norms 4.50 2.86 4.47 5.91 4.13 148.49***
Workgroup recognition 7.51 5.17 2.22 8.18 6.51 73.81***
Fear of shame 45.91 40.05 36.12 37.39 41.16 94.73***
Learning 11.07 10.97 16.64 17.91 12.77 156.62***
Fear of blame 76.35 81.05 67.99 78.12 78.53 58.40***
Psychological safety 7.00 6.48 11.37 10.92 7.81 130.43***
Problem responsiveness 4.44 2.18 2.22 6.29 3.84 196.09***
Outcomes 40.26 38.66 42.50 26.36 36.44 173.41***
Overall 14.58 13.17 11.75 15.20 14.04 198.40***
  1. Calculated for all personnel and by job types for each scale and for safety climate overall, weighted for job type within each hospital.
  2. *p < 0.05, ***p < 0.001.