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Table 3 Health care utilization in an elderly population (≥65 years of age) with and without multimorbidity

From: Multimorbidity, health care utilization and costs in an elderly community-dwelling population: a claims data based observational study

Health care utilization mean number (SD) per year Total study sample (n = 229493) Non-multi-morbid (n = 53741) Multi-morbid (n = 175752) Sign.
Consultations (total) 13.1 (13.7) 4.4 (6.3) 15.7 (14.2) ***
By primary care physicians 6.1 (6.7) 1.9 (3.1) 7.4 (7.0) ***
By specialists 4.3 (6.4) 1.8 (3.4) 5.1 (6.8) ***
Hospital outpatient visits 2.7 (7.9) 0.7 (3.0) 3.2 (8.8) ***
Physician contacts     
Face-to-face consultations 8.1 (7.6) 2.9 (4.0) 9.7 (7.8) ***
Phone consultations 0.5 (1.6) 0.1 (0.6) 0.7 (1.8) ***
home visits 0.2 (1.6) 0.0 (0.6) 0.3 (1.8) ***
Different ATCs1 10.7 (8.3) 2.4 (2.9) 13.3 (7.8) ***
Different physicians contacted     
Total 2.9 (2.1) 1.5 (1.6) 3.3 (2.1) ***
Different primary care physicians 1.1 (0.7) 0.6 (0.6) 1.2 (0.7) ***
Different specialists 1.8 (1.9) 0.9 (1.3) 2.1 (1.9) ***
Hospitalisations2 1.5 (0.9) 1.2 (0.5) 1.5 (0.9) ***
Length of hospital stay2 13.9 (20.9) 7.9 (18.3) 14.3 (21.0) ***
Acute hospitals 11.0 (16.0) 6.0 (9.1) 11.3 (16.2) ***
Psychiatric hospitals 0.9 (9.6) 0.7 (9.6) 1.0 (9.7)  
Others (e.g. rehabilitations) 2.0 (8.6) 1.2 (12.6) 2.0 (8.3) ***
  1. ***p-value <0.001 **p-value <0.01 *p-value <0.05.
  2. 1ATC = Anatomical Therapeutic Chemical.
  3. 2only in patients with at least one hospitalisation.