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Table 5 Regression models’ results

From: Inputs for universal health coverage: a methodological contribution to finding proxy indicators for financial hardship due to health expenditure

  All households Households with OOP >0
  1A - 20% 1A - 40% 1B - 20% 1B - 40% 2A 2B 2C 1A - 20% 1A - 40% 1B - 20% 1B - 40% 2A 2B 2C
National level variables
Per capita total health expenditure (PPP $) -0.025 0.022 0.041 -0.007 -0.544***** -0.497***** 0.024 0.057 0.014 0.01 -0.104 -0.476**** -0.425**** 0.032
Government health expenditure over total government expenditure (%) 0.310 -1.648 0.036 0.05 10.289***** 8.311** 1.921 1.780 1.308 2.356 3.54 10.837** 6.88 8.689**
Gini coefficient 0.747 1.446** 1.704**** 2.242***** 3.355***** 0.227 2.458*** 1.360** 1.686** 1.288* 2.118**** 4.379**** 0.767 2.933**
Predominately tax-funded financing (0,1) 0.176 -0.046 0.069 -0.285 -0.296 0.251 0.178 -0.052 -0.191 -0.062 -0.11 -0.212 0.849 0.61
Predominately mixed financing (0,1) 0.103 0.179 0.019 -0.211 -0.642 -0.011 -0.717* 0.031 0.048 -0.05 -0.071 -0.628 0.757 -0.822
Out-of-pocket payments as a share of total health expenditure (%) 1.908***** 2.504***** 2.155***** 2.823***** 2.423***** 2.457*** 3.638***** 2.000***** 2.261***** 2.671***** 2.598***** 1.98** 1.798* 3.44*****
Household level variables
Household member under 5 (0,1) 0.208***** 0.228***** 0.170***** 0.146***** 0.408***** 0.310***** 0.216***** -0.044 0.025 -0.037 0.008 0.239***** 0.205***** 0.047
Household member over 60 (0,1) 0.355***** 0.364***** 0.376***** 0.378***** 0.202***** 0.276***** 0.325***** 0.329***** 0.323***** 0.356***** 0.345***** 0.162***** 0.186***** 0.252*****
Household head with primary education (0,1) -0.007 -0.135***** -0.070**** -0.193***** -0.055 -0.063 -0.103*** -0.137***** -0.251***** -0.151***** -0.251***** -0.174***** -0.142***** -0.188*****
Household head with secondary or higher education (0,1) -0.174***** -0.381***** -0.217***** -0.397***** -0.227** -0.233**** -0.298***** -0.305***** -0.493***** -0.338***** -0.491***** -0.325***** -0.309***** -0.376*****
Male household head (0,1) -0.064**** -0.060** -0.064**** -0.058** 0.068 0.090*** -0.081* -0.133***** -0.095***** -0.12***** -0.085**** 0.044 0.059* -0.134****
Urban residence (0,1) -0.167***** -0.316***** -0.231***** -0.348***** -0.361***** -0.299***** -0.304***** -0.186***** -0.333***** -0.2***** -0.33***** -0.394***** -0.31***** -0.289*****
Insurance coverage reported (0,1) -0.105*** -0.197***** -0.134**** -0.232***** -0.642***** -0.319***** -0.236*** -0.130***** -0.198***** -0.141***** -0.206***** -0.514***** -0.3***** -0.22**
Disabled household member (0,1) 0.554***** 0.549***** 0.496***** 0.437***** 0.537***** 0.590***** 0.504***** 0.311***** 0.322***** 0.298***** 0.283***** 0.318***** 0.397***** 0.28*****
Quintile 2 (0,1) 0.189***** 0.099*** -0.015 -0.147**** 0.061 0.473 3.773***** -0.335***** -0.301***** -0.289***** -0.259***** -0.417 0.285 3.21*****
Quintile 3 (0,1) 0.146** 0.011 -0.003 -0.153** -0.089 0.707 4.683***** -0.660***** -0.579***** -0.437***** -0.355***** -0.581 0.448 4.087*****
Quintile 4 (0,1) 0.055 -0.117** 0.046 -0.106 -0.218 1.181* 3.667***** -1.030***** -0.883***** -0.572***** -0.401***** -0.763 0.773 2.921*****
Quintile 5 (0,1) 0.060 0.088 0.097 0.063 -0.401 1.207* 3.064***** -1.210***** -0.794***** -0.697***** -0.318***** -1.113** 0.618 2.121***
  1. *p-value <0.1.
  2. **p-value <0.05.
  3. ***p-value <0.01.
  4. ****p-value <0.005.
  5. *****p-value <0.001.