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Table 2 Summary of preference elicitation studies

From: Health state descriptions to elicit stroke values: do they reflect patient experience of stroke?

Preference elicitation study Objective Research subjects Types of stroke covered by health state descriptors Development of health state descriptions: information sources Method of elicitation
Solomon et al. 1994 [24] To examine patient preferences for different outcomes of stroke including death All outpatients referred to a neuro-diagnostics laboratory for ultrasound evaluation of the carotid artery Consequences of stroke: mild, moderate and severe impairment of three types of neurological deficit: motor, language and cognitive. Descriptions for a painless fatal stroke and perfect health. Stroke deficit types scaled in terms of severity classifications: mild, moderate and severe impairment. Scaling validity of stroke deficit types: tested by three neurologists specialized in stroke care. Rank and scale method over a 100 point range: 100 representing perfect health and 0 representing the worst possible health state.
Age, y(mean ± SD ): 73 ± 9
Gender, % female: 45
Country: USA
No reference to how or why deficit types were identified
Gage et al. 1996 [33] To determine how stroke and stroke prophylaxis affect quality of life using direct preference elicitation Patients with atrial fibrillation, at least 50 years of age, could read English and who did not reside in a convalescent hospital Mild, moderate and major stroke Categorised by progressively more severe neurological deficit based on Modified Rankin Scale (mild - mRS 1 or 2, moderate 3 or 4, severe 4 or 5). Utilised van Hoeyweghen et al. [36] which recommended that stroke descriptions of function cover multiple domains: fine and gross motor skills, spoken and written language are, and cognitive and psychosocial function Time trade-off and standard gamble
Age, y(mean ± SD ): 70.1 ± 7.3
Gender, % male: 86
Country: USA
Shin et al. 1997 [34] To determine younger patients’ perceptions of quality of life with a stroke by eliciting utility values Younger patients with arteriovenous malformations who are at risk of a stroke or have experienced one. Major and minor stroke No information regarding how stroke severity classifications were developed Standard gamble
Age, y(mean)(range): 37(18-57)
Gender: not reported
Country: Canada
Samsa et al. 1998 [17] To examine attitudes toward hypothetical major stroke Patients at increased risk of stroke including those with and without a history of cerebrovascular symptoms but at increased risk of stroke due to conditions such as atrial fibrillation, hypertension and vascular heart disease Major stroke with and without aphasia No information regarding how stroke severity classifications were developed Time trade-off
Age, y(mean): 65
Gender, % male: 52
Country: USA
Hallan et al. 1999 [14] To elicit valid quality of life estimates and the highest acceptable treatment risk of different outcomes after stroke Healthy people, non stroke medical patients and stroke survivors 20-84 years old Minor and major stroke Classifications for minor and major stroke based on Rankin scale 2-3 and 4-5 respectively Standard gamble, time trade-off and direct scaling
Age, y(mean): not reported   
Gender: not reported
Country: Norway
Robinson et al. 2001 [13] To elicit patient valuations of health states relevant to the assessment of the prevention of stroke by warfarin anticoagulation therapy Patients over the age of 60 years with atrial fibrillation Mild and severe stroke as well as hospital managed warfarin and major bleed Adapted from 2 previous studies Standard gamble
Age, y(mean)(range): 73(60-87)    
Gender, % male: 54
Country: England
Slot and Berge 2009 [35] To ascertain patients’ preferences for thrombolytic treatment for acute stroke Elderly people at five day care centres: ischaemic stroke survivors and age- matched control subjects who were at risk of stroke Mild, moderately severe and severe ischaemic stroke Based on Modified Rankin Scale for mild (mRS =1), moderately severe (mRS =3) and severe (mRS = 5) stroke Standard gamble
  Age, y(mean ± SD): 78 ± 6    
Gender: not reported
Country: Norway