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Table 2 Baseline characteristics and three-year health care utilization (2005-2007) for individuals with No metabolic syndrome, At-risk-for metabolic syndrome, with Metabolic syndrome, and with diabetes and/or coronary heart diseases (CHD) according to electronic health record data

From: Identifying primary care patients at risk for future diabetes and cardiovascular disease using electronic health records

  No metabolic syndrome* At-risk-for metabolic syndrome* Metabolic syndrome* Any diabetes/
CHD
  
  0 criteria 1-2 criteria ≥ 3 criteria    
Baseline characteristics   
N 36,841 36,267 5,185 17,320   
Age, years (SD) 45 (15) 49 (16) 52 (14) 64 (16)   
Women, % 62.8% 57.4% 48.6% 48.0%   
Race (% White) 78.8% 76.5% 78.5% 79.3%   
Insurance       
Insurance
% Commercial
77.4% 66.1% 62.2% 35.1%   
   % Medicare 10.6% 18.3% 20.4% 5.4%   
Income, $US (SD) $81,402
($59,796)
$70,551
($53,479)
$62,101
($45,643)
$64,190 (49,551)   
Three-year outcomes p-value† p-value‡
Inpatient admissions, mean number per patient (SD) 0.12 (0.61) 0.23 (1.07) 0.35 (1.20) 1.5 (3.6) <.0001 <.0001
Length of stay, mean days (SD) § 4 (3) 5 (3) 6 (3) 12 (3) <.0001 <.0001
Outpatient clinic visits, mean number per patient (SD) § 4.3 (2.3) 6.6 (2.5) 10.4 (2.5) 20.5 (2.5) <.0001 <.0001
Total cost, US dollars (SD) § $3,054 ($4) $4,136 ($4) $5,057 ($4) $9,177 ($4) <.0001 <.0001
Incidence of diabetes mellitus 1.4% 4.0% 11.0% N/A <.0001 N/A
Incidence of CHD 3.1% 5.3% 6.4% N/A <.0001 N/A
  1. * Individuals categorized after exclusion of diabetes and CHD, including only patients with at least three criteria (formal or surrogate) measured (n = 78,293) using electronic health record data from 2003-2004
  2. † p-values for trend in age-sex-adjusted regression analysis in all 3 categories of metabolic syndrome status (No metabolic syndrome, At-Risk-for metabolic syndrome, and with Metabolic syndrome)
  3. ‡ p-values for trend in age-sex-adjusted regression analysis in all 4 categories (No metabolic syndrome, At-Risk-for metabolic syndrome, with Metabolic syndrome, and any diabetes and/or CHD)
  4. §log-transformed for analysis and then back-transformed for display