Skip to main content

Table 1 Socio-demographics Characteristics and Barriers to Healthcare Utilization

From: Barriers to healthcare utilization in fatiguing illness: a population-based study in Georgia

Characteristics   Barriers to Healthcare Utilizations
  All Yes No Unadjusted Odds Ratiosa
(95% CI)
Adjusted Odds Ratiosb
(95% CI)
  n = 780 n = 315 (40%) n = 465 (60%)   
Age, No. (%)    Row % Row %  
   18–29 93 (11.92) 45.16 54.84 1.38 (0.85–2.22) 1.32 (0.77–2.26)
   30–39 147 (18.85) 41.50 58.50 1.19 (0.78–1.79) 0.94 (0.59–1.50)
   40–49 281 (36.03) 40.93 59.07 1.16 (0.82–1.64) 1.02 (0.69–1.46)
   50–59 259 (33.20) 37.45 62.55 Reference Reference
Sex      
   Female 594 (76.15) 42.09 57.91 1.35 (0.96–1.91) 1.47 (1.02–2.12)
   Male 186 (23.85) 34.95 65.05 Reference Reference
Race      
   Black 194 (24.87) 39.18 60.82 0.94 (0.67–1.31) 0.93 (0.64–1.37)
   Other 35 (4.49) 42.86 57.14 1.10 (0.55–2.18) 1.04 (0.50–2.15)
   White 551 (70.64) 40.65 59.35 Reference Reference
Residential Areas      
   Rural 383 (49.10) 41.78 58.22 1.42 (0.94–2.15) 1.49 (0.94–2.35)
   Urban 266 (34.10) 41.73 58.27 1.42 (0.92–2.19) 1.48 (0.93–2.35)
   Metropolitan 131 (16.79) 33.59 66.41 Reference Reference
Marital Status      
   Married 502 (64.36) 39.44 60.56 1.12 (0.83–1.50) 1.13 (0.80–1.60)
   Not Currently Married 278 (35.64) 42.09 57.91 Reference Reference
Parental Status      
   Children under 18 400 (51.28) 42.25 57.75 1.17 (0.88–1.56) 1.24 (0.89–1.72)
   No Children under 18 380 (48.72) 38.42 61.58 Reference Reference
Work Status      
   Full-time 487 (62.44) 40.25 59.75 1.00 (0.72–1.38) 1.20 (0.83–1.72)
   Part-time 80 (10.26) 41.25 58.75 1.04 (0.62–1.75) 0.96 (0.55–1.67)
   Not currently working 213 (27.31) 40.38 59.62 Reference Reference
Education      
   Less than High School 46 (5.90) 41.30 58.70 1.04 (0.57–1.91) 0.90 (0.47–1.73)
   High School or Above 734 (94.10) 40.33 59.67 Reference Reference
Household Income      
   Below GA Median Incomec 323 (43.01) 41.49 58.51 1.10 (0.82–1.47) 0.92 (0.65–1.30)
   GA Median Income or Above 428 (56.99) 39.25 60.75 Reference Reference
Insurance*      
   Uninsured* 113 (14.51) 53.10 46.90 1.83 (1.22–2.73) 2.03 (1.28–3.21)
   Insured 666 (85.49) 38.29 61.71 Reference Reference
Multiple Healthcare Coverage*      Not included
   Two or more* 38 (4.88) 28.95 71.05 0.36 (0.16–0.80) --
   One* 628 (80.62) 38.85 61.15 0.56 (0.38–0.84) --
   None 113 (14.51) 53.10 46.90 Reference --
  1. *indicates p-value < 0.01 (two-tailed tests); p-value < 0.05 were in bold font.
  2. Note: Values are No. (%) unless otherwise indicated.
  3. a Comparison between subjects who having any barrier to healthcare and those who not.
  4. b Adjusted for all other variables in the table.
  5. c Georgia median income is $42,679.