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Table 4 Effect of adverse events (AE) on patient outcomes.

From: The impact of adverse events in the intensive care unit on hospital mortality and length of stay

a) Effect of AEs on time to death
Variable Hazard ratio (95% CI)
Model 1  
AE 0.93 (0.44–1.98)
Age 1.0 (0.98–1.02)
Probability of death 1.41 (1.24–1.60)
LOS prior to ICU admit 0.94 (0.86–1.02)
Charlson score 1.13 (0.96–1.32)
Model 2*  
Preventable AE 0.72 (0.25–2.04)
Non-preventable AE 0.69 (0.27–1.76)
CI = Confidence interval.
b) Effect of AEs on time to discharge and length of stay
Variable Hazard ratio (95% CI)
Model 1:  
AE 0.50 (0.31–0.81)
Age 1.00 (0.99–1.01)
Probability of death 0.84 (0.78–0.91)
LOS prior to ICU admit 0.99 (0.96–1.02)
Charlson score 0.88 (0.77–1.00)
Model 2*:  
Preventable AE 0.46 (0.23–0.91)
Non-preventable AE 0.54 (0.30–1.00)
CI = Confidence interval.
  1. These tables present the association of ICU-based adverse events (AEs) with time to death (section a) and time to hospital discharge (section b). For each outcome, two models are presented: in model 1 we modelled time to first AE as the independent variable of interest; in model 2 we modelled time to first preventable AE and non-preventable AEs as the independent variables of interest. In all models, adverse events were expressed as time-dependent factors. All models were stratified by patient location prior to ICU admission. For brevity, we omitted the hazard ratios for these covariates for Model 2 from the table as they do not differ from the estimates presented for Model 1. The hazard ratio for probability of death represents the increase in risk expected with a 10% increase in the new Simplified Acute Physiology Score [7].
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