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Table 1 Characteristics of the factors after confirmative and explorative factor analysis

From: The psychometric properties of the 'Hospital Survey on Patient Safety Culture' in Dutch hospitals

Confirmative factor analysis Explorative factor analysis
Factor No of items Chron-bach α American data Chron-bach α Dutch data Factor No of items Chron-bach α
Teamwork across hospital units 4 0.80 0.59 Teamwork across hospital units 5 0.72
Teamwork within units 4 0.83 0.66 Teamwork within units 4 0.66
Hospital handoffs and transitions 4 0.80 0.68 Adequate shift changes 2 0.65
Frequency of event reporting 3 0.84 0.79 Frequency of event reporting 3 0.79
Nonpunitive response to error 3 0.79 0.69 Nonpunitive response to error 3 0.69
Communication openness 3 0.72 0.72 Communication openness 3 0.72
Feedback and communication about error 3 0.78 0.75 Feedback about and learning from error 6 0.78
Organisational learning – Continuous improvement 3 0.76 0.57 * * *
Supervisor/manager expectations/actions 4 0.75 0.70 Supervisor/manager expectations/actions 4 0.70
Hospital management support for safety 3 0.83 0.68 Hospital management support for safety 3 0.68
Staffing 4 0.63 0.49 Adequate staffing 3 0.58
Overall perceptions of safety 4 0.74 0.62 Overall perceptions of safety 4 0.64
  1. *The items of the American factors Feedback about and communication about error and Organisational learning – Continuous improvement combined into one factor, Feedback about and learning from error, in the explorative factor analysis.