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Table 4 Comparison of baseline values at admission to the hospital, split for hospital and diagnostic subgroup (TTH = Tension-type headache; m = arithmetic mean, sd = standard deviation); - not significant, * p < 0.05, ** p < 0.01

From: Profiling quality of care for patients with chronic headache in three different German hospitals – a case study

   Providing hospital Diagnostic headache subgroup   Significance testing
   Hosp. A Hosp. B Hosp. C Migraine alone TTH or combined with migr. Total Between Between Hosp. X
  n = 99 109 98 167 139 306 Hosp. Subgr Subgr
Pain intensity m (sd) 5.8 (1.5) 5.7 (1.7) 6.5 (1.8) 6.2 (1.8) 5.7 (1.5) 6.0 (1.7) ** * -
Pain disability Index m (sd) 35.3 (15.7) 36.6 (15.6) 38.9 (15.3) 39.9 (16.4) 33.4 (13.6) 37.0 (15.5) - ** -
Days with headache Per 4 weeks; m (sd) 12.0 (5.5) 12.8 (6.2) 14.8 (7.0) 11.4 (5.5) 15.3 (6.7) 13.2 (6.4) ** ** *
Days with analgesics Per 4 weeks; m (sd) 7.8 (4.8) 9.5 (6.3) 9.0 (6.4) 8.7 (5.7) 8.9 (6.2) 8.8 (5.9) - - -
Pain affective T-values; m (sd) 58.6 (8.5) 56.9 (7.9) 57.5 (7.6) 58.8 (8.6) 57.7 (7.7) 58.3 (8.2) - - -
Physical Health# T-values; m (sd) 38.7 (8.0) 38.4 (7.7) 36.8 (8.9) 38.0 (8.2) 38.0 (8.2) 38.0 (8.2) - - -
Mental Health# T-values; m (sd) 42.0 (11.5) 43.4 (11.4) 42.0 (10.8) 43.7 (10.9) 41.1 (11.5) 42.5 (11.2) - * -
Depression T-values; m (sd) 53.8 (8.5) 51.9 (9.4) 54.7 (9.7) 52.1 (9.3) 55.1 (9.0) 53.4 (9.2) * ** -
Sense of coherence# m (sd) 64.2 (11.8) 65.7 (11.9) 61.2 (13.3) 64.8 (11.9) 62.6 (13.0) 63.8 (12.4) * - -
Satisfaction with health# m (sd) 2.1 (0.9) 2.1 (1.0) 1.8 (0.9) 2.0 (0.9) 2.0 (0.9) 2.0 (0.9) * - *
Healthy food# m (sd) 11.6 (2.8) 10.9 (2.6) 10.5 (2.4) 11.0 (2.5) 11.0 (2.8) 11.0 (2.6) * - -
Physical activity# m (sd) 5.9 (2.1) 5.6 (2.5) 5.4 (2.3) 5.7 (2.3) 5.6 (2.3) 5.6 (2.3) - - -
Coping with stress# m (sd) 3.4 (2.2) 3.2 (2.2) 3.1 (2.2) 3.2 (2.2) 3.3 (2.2) 3.2 (2.2) - - -
Using of self-help# m (sd) 0.9 (1.1) 0.7 (0.9) 0.8 (0.9) 0.9 (1.0) 0.7 (0.9) 0.8 (1.0) - - -
  1. # higher values indicate better status