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Table 3 Patients' profile for socio-demographic and medical history data; split for hospital and diagnostic subgroup (TTH = tension-type headache; m = arithmetic mean, sd = standard deviation); - not significant, * p < 0.05, ** p < 0.01

From: Profiling quality of care for patients with chronic headache in three different German hospitals – a case study

   Providing hospital Diagnostic headache subgroup   Significance testing
   Hosp. A Hosp. B Hosp. C Migraine alone TTH or combined with migr. Total Between Between Hosp.X
  N = 99 109 98 167 139 306 Hosp. Subgr Subgr
Age Years; m (sd) 51.8 (9.6) 46.3 (11.1) 47.3 (12.0) 48.6 (10.6) 48.2 (11.8) 48.4 (11.1) ** - -
Gender Female % 88.9 90.8 85.7 90.4 86.3 88.6 - - -
Education >12 school years % 24.2 34.9 18.4 25.1 27.3 26.1 * - -
Occupational status Employed % 63.6 67.9 65.3 66.5 64.7 65.7 - - -
Headache since Up to 5 yrs % 3.0 5.6 3.1 3.0 5.1 3.9    
  6 to 10 yrs % 13.1 10.2 14.3 10.8 14.5 12.5    
         - - -
  11 to 20 yrs % 17.2 22.2 22.4 22.8 18.1 20.7    
  > 20 yrs % 66.7 62.0 60.2 63.5 62.3 63.0    
Prophylactic treatment Drug treatment % 34.1 38.5 26.6 33.5 32.8 33.2 - - -
  Non-drug % 73.9 67.0 70.8 73.2 66.9 70.4 - - -
Acute headache Drug treatment % 97.8 99.1 89.2 96.8 94.0 95.5 ** - -
  Non-drug % 47.2 49.5 51.2 44.4 54.8 49.3 - - -
Previous treatment with CAM§methods % 59.1 79.0 83.2 77.6 69.7 74.2 ** - *
General health status m (sd) 2.50 (0.88) 2.61 (0.95) 2.48 (1.13) 2.64 (1.01) 2.40 (0.94) 2.53 (0.99) - * *
Internal Health locus of control m (sd) 1.87 (0.84) 1.83 (0.93) 1.48 (0.98) 1.70 (0.85) 1.76 (1.02) 1.73 (0.93) ** - *
Trust in successful treatment m (sd) 3.01 (0.76) 3.31 (0.77) 3.44 (0.61) 3.32 (0.69) 3.18 (0.78) 3.26 (0.74) ** - -
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