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Table 1 Analytic Sample Means or Percentages.

From: Exploring the association of dual use of the VHA and Medicare with mortality: separating the contributions of inpatient and outpatient services

  Non- Veteran Veteran Veteran Dual Use Criteria
    Non- Dual Use Dual Use By Hospitalization By Physician Visits By Both
Sociodemographic        
Age 79.2 74.8*** 74.8 74.7 75.2 74.7 73.5
Race        
   White (reference group) 79.3 91.8*** 92.0 91.0 94.0 87.9 90.5
   Hispanic 8.8 1.8*** 1.6 2.6 3.3 1.6 3.0
   African American 10.6 5.7*** 5.6 6.5 2.7 10.5 6.5
   Other Race 1.3 0.7 0.8 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0
Living Alone 22.1 19.4 18.9 22.0 24.0 16.1 32.1
Socioeconomic        
Education        
   Grade School 39.0 15.8*** 15.0 20.3 21.5 21.1 14.9
   High School (reference group) 41.6 46.3 46.6 44.4 39.9 50.5 41.4
   Some College 19.5 37.9*** 38.4 35.3 38.6 28.4 43.7
Income < $15,000 38.2 18.2*** 17.0 25.3* 26.8 23.1 26.5
Wealth <= $19,000 21.4 10.6*** 10.0 14.0 10.9 10.8 32.0*
Private Health Insurance 75.0 87.0*** 87.3 85.8 86.7 81.6 94.7
Life Style        
Smoker (ever) 71.3 80.9*** 79.8 87.3* 91.4 78.0 100.0*
Weight        
   Normal or Under Weight 47.2 40.8* 41.3 38.5 46.3 35.4 23.5
   Over Weight 43.5 46.7 46.9 45.7 42.4 42.5 64.1
   Obese 9.3 12.5* 11.9 15.8 11.3 22.1 12.4
Drinking        
   Never drank (reference group) 52.2 36.5*** 34.9 45.4* 49.4 36.8 56.9
   <1 drink/day 35.4 41.2* 41.7 38.2 35.0 42.6 36.0
   1–2 drinks/day 9.8 17.5*** 18.5 11.9 9.8 17.7 2.4
   3+ drinks/day 2.7 4.9* 5.0 4.4 5.8 2.8 4.7
Never Having a Driver's License 2.2 0.8* 0.9 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0
Disease History        
Arthritis 19.1 19.4 17.9 27.6* 22.1 35.3 22.7
Cancer 12.4 15.2 14.0 21.6* 25.6 22.5 7.4
Diabetes 10.5 13.0 12.0 18.6* 11.7 22.9 27.4
Stroke 10.1 9.6 8.1 18.0*** 13.4 19.0 29.3
Hypertension 37.5 44.4** 42.3 55.9** 49.3 55.9 75.5
Lung Disease 11.4 11.6 10.2 19.6** 18.4 21.2 18.6
Heart Condition 32.7 32.4 29.1 51.1*** 51.6 42.3 73.5
Hip Fracture 4.1 2.1* 2.2 1.2 0.0 3.1 0.0
Psychological Problems 3.1 6.6** 5.1 14.6*** 16.0 10.8 20.8
Functional Limitations        
ADL Counts 0.29 0.17*** 0.13 0.40*** 0.43 0.43 0.22
IADL Counts 0.47 0.26*** 0.23 0.43** 0.46 0.41 0.40
Lower Body Limitations Count 1.07 0.78*** 0.68 1.50*** 1.47 1.40 1.86
Hearing – Poor or Fair 38.8 26.5*** 25.2 33.8* 37.9 28.4 36.3
Vision – Poor or Fair 28.5 21.4** 19.6 31.7** 33.4 26.3 41.3
Memory – Poor or Fair 33.7 25.5*** 25.2 26.9 24.6 31.0 22.4
Self-Rated Health:        
   Excellent or Very Good 31.2 38.9** 42.4 19.5*** 18.0 24.6 10.2
   Good (reference group) 33.3 31.6 32.6 26.3 34.0 20.7 18.6
   Poor or Fair 35.5 29.4* 25.0 54.2*** 48.0 54.7 71.2
Ability to Drive 81.1 91.5*** 92.8 84.6** 79.0 92.2 80.6
Depressive Symptoms        
   None 36.8 47.7*** 49.5 37.8* 37.4 41.2 30.2
   1 or 2 (reference group) 39.4 35.4 35.0 37.7 32.5 43.2 38.3
   3 or more 23.8 16.9*** 15.5 24.5* 30.1 15.6 31.4
Cognitive Status        
   Low 32.2 14.1*** 13.5 17.3 22.1 14.9 9.9
   Average (reference group) 30.2 35.1* 36.3 28.4 22.0 27.5 49.6
   High 37.5 50.9*** 50.3 54.3 55.8 57.7 40.6
Prior Health Services Use        
N of Self-reported Hospitalizations        
   0 (reference group) 77.3 77.6 87.1 24.5*** 0.0 60.4 0.0***
   1 15.9 14.3 9.9 39.5*** 49.3 29.3 37.7
   2+ 6.8 8.0 3.1 36.0*** 50.7 10.2 62.3***
N of Claim-based Physician Visits 12.2 11.1* 10.6 13.9** 16.5 13.5 7.2*
Weighted N 634 888 754 134 60 54 20
  1. Note: Weighted analyses adjust for the unequal probabilities of selection due either to the multi-stage cluster sampling design and/or the over-sampling. Weighted N = 1,522 due to rounding.
  2. *p < .05 **p < .01 ***p < .001