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Table 5 Factors associated with a high burden of travel for medical/dental care, separate logistic regression analyses, NHTS 2001.

From: Effects of residence and race on burden of travel for care: cross sectional analysis of the 2001 US National Household Travel Survey

  Travel of 30 miles or more a Travel of 30 minutes or more b
  OR 95% CI OR 95% CI
Characteristics of Traveler     
Residence     
   Rural 2.67** 1.39, 5.15 1.80* 1.09, 2.99
   Urban (ref) --- --- --- ---
Race     
   White (ref) --- --- --- ---
   Black 1.03 0.53, 2.02 3.04*** 2.00, 4.62
   Hispanic 2.45 0.51, 11.77 1.23 0.56, 2.69
   Other 1.90 0.69, 5.19 1.64* 1.07, 2.51
Age     
   0~25 1.32 0.73, 2.36 0.95 0.70, 1.31
   26~50 (ref) --- --- --- ---
   51~75 1.31 0.73, 2.35 1.05 0.79, 1.40
   76~100 1.59 0.68, 3.69 1.18 0.77, 1.83
Sex     
   Male (ref) --- --- --- ---
   Female 1.08 0.80, 1.46 0.83 0.68, 1.00
Education     
   High School or Lower 1.10 0.59, 2.04 0.94 0.71, 1.24
   College (ref) --- --- --- ---
   Graduate School 0.63 0.25, 1.61 0.95 0.60, 1.51
   Not Ascertained 0.65 0.15, 2.78 0.63 0.32, 1.27
Medical Condition that Limits Driving     
   Yes (ref) --- --- --- ---
   No 0.64 0.39, 1.04 0.82 0.60, 1.11
Occupation of Head of Household     
   Sales or Service (ref) --- --- --- ---
   Clerical or Administrative Support 0.52 0.19, 1.39 1.11 0.71, 1.71
   Manufacturing, Construction, Maintenance, or Farming 1.23 0.47, 3.26 0.84 0.49, 1.45
   Professional, Managerial or Technical 1.02 0.48, 2.17 1.25 0.85, 1.86
   Other 0.84 0.46, 1.55 1.20 0.85, 1.70
Household Income     
   < $20,000 (ref) --- --- --- ---
   >$20,000 and < $44,999 1.18 0.54, 2.61 0.97 0.65, 1.45
   >$45,000 and < $69,999 0.90 0.43, 1.87 0.78 0.52, 1.16
   >$70,000 1.17 0.51, 2.69 0.68 0.42, 1.09
   Not Ascertained 0.30 0.09, 0.93 0.89 0.53, 1.51
Family Size     
   < = 2 Family Members (ref) --- --- --- ---
   3 Family Members 0.98 0.46, 2.10 0.96 0.64, 1.45
   4 Family Members 0.80 0.39, 1.63 1.02 0.67, 1.54
   >4 Family Members 1.29 0.62, 2.68 1.44 0.96, 2.18
Characteristics of Trip     
Mode of Travel     
   Personal Vehicle (ref) --- --- --- ---
   Public/Walk/Other 0.40 0.13, 1.26 2.22*** 1.42, 3.46
Day of Week     
   Business Day (Monday- Friday) (ref) --- --- --- ---
   Weekend (Saturday-Sunday) 1.43 0.88, 2.34 1.16 0.85, 1.59
Time of Day     
   Midnight – 8 am 2.54* 1.12, 5.78 1.86* 1.12, 3.10
   Business Hours (8 am – 5 pm) (ref) --- --- --- ---
   5 pm – midnight 0.20*** 0.09, 0.43 0.71 0.31, 1.61
Characteristics of Community     
Traffic Condition     
   Yes (ref) --- --- --- ---
   No 0.83 0.58, 1.20 0.81 0.64, 1.02
Region     
   Northeast (ref) --- --- --- ---
   South 0.98 0.47, 2.06 1.24 0.87, 1.78
   Midwest 1.46 0.76, 2.80 1.38 0.97, 1.95
   West 2.11 0.88, 5.05 1.40 0.98, 2.00
Job Density     
   Low (ref) --- --- --- ---
   Median 0.52 0.23, 1.16 0.94 0.58, 1.53
   High 0.49 0.20, 1.19 0.86 0.50, 1.46
   Very High 0.19** 0.07, 0.52 0.62 0.37, 1.03
  1. a Model Statistics for distance traveled: R2 = 0.0899.
  2. b Model Statistics for time spent in travel: R2 = 0.0817
  3. * p > 0.05. ** p > 0.01. *** p > 0.001.