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Table 1 Categories of outcome in the "payback" framework

From: A systematic evaluation of payback of publicly funded health and health services research in Hong Kong

1) Knowledge production: any accepted peer or non-peer reviewed publication (journal article, abstract, editorial, letter, book, book chapter, conference proceeding, report or others).
2) Use of research in the research system: a) the acquisition of formal qualifications by members of the research team, other research staff or prostgraduate students, b) career advancement for any members of the project team, and c) use of project findings for methodology in subsequent research by members of the project team
3) Use of research project findings in health system policy/decision making: project findings that could be used in policy/decision making at any level of the health service such as geographic level and organisation level
4) Application of the research findings through changed behaviour: changes in behaviour observed or expected through the application of findings to research-informed policies at a geographical, organisation and population level
5) Factors influencing the utilisation of research: estimated impact of research dissemination in terms of policy/decision making/behavioural change.
6) Health/health service/economic benefits arising from funded research: benefits that may or are expected to accrue from research funding such as improved service delivery; cost savings; improved health; or increased equity.