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Table 3 Adjusted odds of operative mortality following kidney transplantation at volume non-compliant hospitals.

From: Payer leverage and hospital compliance with a benchmark: a population-based observational study

COvariate Odds Ratio 95% Confidence Interval
Volume non-compliant 1.64 0.77 – 3.52
Female 1.01 0.80 – 1.26
Race   
   White 1 (ref.) --
   Black 1.05 0.76 – 1.45
   Hispanic 0.94 0.60 – 1.48
   Asian 1.21 0.70 – 2.07
   Other 1.05 0.72 – 1.51
Insurance type   
   Medicare 1 (ref.) --
   Medicaid 0.50 0.38 – 0.66
   Private 1.42 0.96 – 2.10
Operative year   
   1993 1 (ref.) --
   1994 1.21 0.71 – 2.07
   1995 1.03 0.59 – 1.77
   1996 1.35 0.80 – 2.27
   1997 1.21 0.72 – 2.04
   1998 0.61 0.31 – 1.19
   1999 0.73 0.40 – 1.36
   2000 0.57 0.29 – 1.10
   2001 0.82 0.43 – 1.56
   2002 0.54 0.27 – 1.07
   2003 0.81 0.44 – 1.48
Count of Elixhauser codes 1.30 1.20 – 1.41
Hospital census region   
   Northeast 1 (ref.) --
   North-central 0.74 0.46 – 1.17
   South 0.89 0.59 – 1.35
   West 0.60 0.38 – 0.94
Hospital bedsize   
   Small 1 (ref.) --
   Medium 0.93 0.44 – 1.96
   Large 0.96 0.47 – 1.93
For-profit 1.47 0.50 – 4.32
Private 0.82 0.55 – 1.22
Teaching 1.12 0.69 – 1.82