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Table 1 Studies of job satisfaction in long-term care settings

From: Determinants of staff job satisfaction of caregivers in two nursing homes in Pennsylvania

Author(s) Job Satisfaction Instrument Number of Items Number of Response options (Anchors used) Job Satisfaction Domains Sample Size and Setting Analyses Used Significant Findings
Parsons and associates (2003) [3] Modified from Herzberg (1966) 35 5 (strongly disagree – strongly agree) Personal opportunity Supervision 550 NAs in 70 facilities in Louisiana Ordinary Least Squares Regression Most dissatisfied with pay, benefits, and recognition
     Benefits    
     Coworker support    
     Social rewards    
     Task rewards    
Moyle and associates (2003) [39] N/A N/A N/A Workplace flexibility 27 RNs and NAs in one facility in Australia Content analysis of focus group data Satisfaction was linked to workplace flexibility, residents, team environment, and better resident care
     Team environment    
     Optimal resident care    
Chou, Boldy, & Lee (2002a, b) [7, 19] Measure of Job Satisfaction (MJS) 22 5 (very dissatisfied – very satisfied) Professional support Seventy facilities with 610 nursing home staff and 373 hostel care staff in Australia Structural Equation Modeling Job satisfaction is associated with professional support
     Personal satisfaction Workload    
     Training    
     Team spirit/co-workers    
Will and Simmons (1999) [33] Job Descriptive Index (JDI) NG NG Work on present job 423 NAs in 29 nursing homes in Ohio Means Satisfied most with work and least with pay
     Pay    
     Opportunities for promotion    
     Supervision    
     Co-workers    
     Job in general    
Atchison (1998) [20] Job Diagnostic Survey 14 5 (extremely dissatisfied – extremely satisfied) Satisfaction 283 NAs in 24 nursing homes Chi square Job satisfaction lowest for security, growth/development, socialization, and challenges
     Job security    
     Coworkers    
     Sense of accomplishment    
     Helping other people    
     Dissatisfaction    
     Pay/benefits    
     Potential for job growth    
     Management    
     Autonomy    
Kiyak, Namazi, & Kahana (1997) [27] Job Descriptive Index (JDI) NG NG Work on present job 308 nursing home and community agency staff Ordinary Least Squares Regression Higher dissatisfaction associated with turnover
     Pay    
     Opportunities for promotion    
     Supervision    
     Co-workers    
     Job in general    
Gillies, Foreman, & Pettengill (1996) [22] Index of Work Satisfaction (IWS) 44 7 (not given) Autonomy 44 nurse directors and nurse educators working in long-term care facilities Repeated Measures ANOVA Job satisfaction highest for interactions, autonomy, and professional status
     Interaction    
     Agency policies    
     Pay    
     Professional status    
     Task requirement    
Grieshaber, Parker, & Deering (1995) [1]     Work environment Two nursing homes   
     Job content    
Irvine & Evans (1995)+ [40] N/A N/A N/A Routinization Meta-analyses with combined sample size of 5,352 Meta-analyses Work content and work environment are more strongly associated with job satisfaction than economic variables
     Autonomy    
     Feedback    
     Role conflict    
     Role ambiguity    
     Work overload    
Coward and associates (1995) [29] Modified Stamps and Piedmonte (1986) scale [IWS] 18 5 (strongly disagree – strongly agree) Professional status 281 RNs and LPNs from 26 nursing homes Multivariate regression analysis Five factors associated with job satisfaction (race, income, supervisor, initial intent to stay, current intent to leave)
     Task requirement    
     Autonomy    
     Interactions with other nurses    
     Pay    
Monahan & Carthy (1992) [41] N/A N/A N/A Attachment 75 NAs at 7 nursing homes Content analysis Attachment most related to retention of NAs
     Gratification    
     Demands    
     Monetary needs    
     Decision-making    
Grau and associates (1991) [42] Combined several scales 44 5 different scales Job process 219 NAs in one nursing home Hierarchical regression analysis Social atmosphere and job benefits associated with institutional loyalty
     Attitudes toward administration    
     Social atmosphere    
     Job benefits    
     Job tasks    
Anderson, Aird, & Haslam (1991) [43] NG 12 5 (strongly disagree – strongly agree) None 212 nursing staff in 6 nursing homes Means Nursing staff have high levels of satisfaction, but is associated with absenteeism
Humphris & Turner (1989) [44] Porter (1962) scale 13 6 (extremely satisfied – extremely unsatisfied) Working conditions 84 nurses at a unit for the elderly severely mentally infirm Chi square Low satisfaction was associated with turnover from unit
     Emotional climate    
     General    
Mullins and associates (1988) [45] Job Satisfaction Survey (JSS) 36 NG Pay Heads of departments (n = 439) from 46 nursing homes Regression analyses Most satisfied when individual efforts are rewarded
     Promotion    
     Supervision    
     Benefits    
     Rewards/appreciation    
     Working conditions    
     Coworkers    
     Nature of job    
     Communication    
Deckard, Hicks & Rountree (1986) [46] Job Diagnostic Survey (JDS) NG NG Skill variety 340 nurses from a nursing home chain Means Job satisfaction was similar to norms in other occupations
     Task identity    
     Task significance    
     Autonomy    
     Job feedback    
Waxman and associates (1984) [47] Minnesota Satisfaction Scale 20 5 (very dissatisfied – very satisfied) Job Satisfaction Scale 234 NAs in 7 facilities, uses 20 questions for overall job satisfaction score Kendal's Rank Order Correlation Positive association between job satisfaction and turnover
Bergman et al. (1984) [2] None 19 4 (none – very much) Job 12 long-term care facilities and 432 RNs, LPNs, and NAs ANOVA Descriptive results provided
     Knowledge, skill, and attitudes    
     Autonomy    
     Stress    
  1. NA = Nurse Aide; RN = Registered Nurse; LPN = Licensed Practical Nurse
  2. + = This study is a meta-analysis, and does not include only long-term care studies
  3. NG = Not given; N/A = Not applicable