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Table 1 Sociodemographic and clinical features by race and ethnicity

From: Racial and ethnic disparities in the control of cardiovascular disease risk factors in Southwest American veterans with type 2 diabetes: the Diabetes Outcomes in Veterans Study

Demographics     
  Non-Hispanic white (n = 226) Hispanic (n = 72) African-American (n = 35) P-value
   Age: mean ± SD years 65.5 ± 9.4 64.9 ± 10.1 63.3 ± 10.8 NS
   Female 5.3% 1.4% 0% NS
   Married 56.6% 66.7% 62.9% NS
Disease history     
   Diabetes duration: mean ± SD years 14.1 ± 9.5 15.4 ± 10.5 15.5 ± 10.6 NS
   Duration of medical treatment: mean ± SD years 12.3 ± 9.0 14.1 ± 10.5 12.6 ± 10.0 NS
   Duration of insulin treatment: mean ± SD years 8.0 ± 7.7 7.8 ± 8.1 8.6 ± 8.2 NS
Complications     
   Neuropathy 59.7% 63.9% 51.4% NS
   Peripheral vascular disease 35.8% 41.7% 28.6% NS
   Angina or chest pain 35.0% 23.6% 40.0% NS
   Myocardial infarction 33.6% 26.4% 17.1% NS
   Retinopathy 31.9% 21.4% 34.3% NS
   Stroke 13.7% 13.9% 11.4% NS
   Extremity amputation 6.6% 8.3% 14.3% NS
   Chronic renal disease 3.5% 0% 2.9% NS
   Blindness 1.3% 1.4% 0% NS
   Any microvascular complication 67.7% 69.4% 71.4% NS
   Any macrovascular complication 66.4% 61.1% 57.1% NS
Disabilities     
   Work 55.8% 55.6% 31.4% 0.03
   Household projects 56.6% 47.2% 45.7% NS
   Yard work 40.3% 33.3% 25.7% NS
   Exercise 28.4% 19.4% 25.7% NS
   Cooking 11.1% 9.7% 5.7% NS
   Shopping 9.7% 12.5% 11.4% NS
   Self-care 4.0% 5.6% 2.9% NS
   Any of the above 72.1% 73.6% 54.3% NS
Another person:     
   Measures blood sugars 1.3% 0% 5.7% NS
   Administers insulin 4.0% 0% 5.7% NS
Family circumstances     
   Head of household 89.3% 97.2% 94.3% NS
   Size of household: mean ± SD 1.96 ± 1.16 2.35 ± 1.60 2.03 ± 0.92 0.04
   Number of dependents: mean ± SD 0.57 ± 0.90 0.83 ± 0.90 0.69 ± 0.80 0.02
   Family member with alcoholism 6.6% 2.8% 8.6% NS
   Family member with disability 50.9% 41.7% 45.7% NS
   Caregiver to another person 39.4% 30.6% 37.1% NS
Occupational history     
   Employed ≥ 8 hours/week 24.3% 25.0% 37.1% NS
   Work hours from 5:00 pm to 8:00 am 9.3% 9.7% 14.3% NS
   Variable job site 7.5% 9.7% 14.3% NS
Geographic barriers     
   Distance to hospital (miles): mean ± SD 20.3 ± 28.3 21.1 ± 30.3 11.3 ± 7.3 0.07*
   Drives automobile 88.1% 93.1% 85.7% NS
Medical treatment     
   Insulin (mean ± SD)     
Units per day 70.6 ± 48.8 58.4 ± 32.6 53.1 ± 36.2 <0.01
Number of injections per day 2.09 ± 0.66 2.11 ± 0.52 1.91 ± 0.45 NS
Number of preparations 1.43 ± 0.54 1.43 ± 0.50 1.29 ± 0.46 NS
   Oral medications     
% subjects using 33.2% 34.7% 31.4% NS
Number of dosing times 0.65 ± 1.00 0.72 ± 1.00 0.66 ± 1.00 NS
BMI (kg/m 2 ): mean ± SD 32.3 ± 6.2 30.9 ± 5.7 31.1 ± 4.5 NS
Exercise (met-hours per week): mean ± SD 64.1 ± 63.9 74.3 ± 77.7 72.7± 48.8 NS
Current smoker 19.9% 25.0% 22.9% NS
Entry HbA1c (%): mean ± SD 7.86 ± 1.41 8.16 ± 1.61 8.84 ± 2.87 0.05†
Blood lipids: mean ± SD     
   Cholesterol (mg/dL) 189 ± 46 192 ± 57 196 ± 35 NS
   Triglycerides (mg/dL) 229 ± 190 225 ± 159 164 ± 96 0.08†
   HDL (mg/dL) 39.5 ± 11.6 40.0 ± 11.5 44.0 ± 13.4 NS
   LDL (mg/dL) 109 ± 42 105 ± 38 121 ± 36 NS
Blood pressure: mean ± SD     
   Systolic (mm Hg) 138 ± 18 138 ± 17 133 ± 20 NS
   Diastolic (mm Hg) 74 ± 10 75 ± 10 77 ± 10 NS
  1. Abbreviations:
  2. SD = standard deviation
  3. BMI = Body Mass Index
  4. HbA1c = Glycosylated hemoglobin
  5. *Kruskal-Wallis one-way analysis of variance by ranks
  6. † Brown-Forsythe test