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Table 4 Results of the logistic regression analysis

From: Non-specific low back pain in primary care in the Spanish National Health Service: a prospective study on clinical outcomes and determinants of management

Descriptor Variable Odds ratio (95% CI) P value Likelihood ratio test P of the test
SLR Intensity of leg pain 1.3 (1.2–1.4) 0.000 55.2 0.000
X-rays Intensity of leg pain 1.2 (1.0–1.2) 0.017 76.4 0.000
  >2 episodes of low back pain 1.9 (1.4–2.7) 0.000   
  Disability 1.1 (1.0–1.1) 0.002   
  Chronicity*   0.000   
     Subacute 2.3 (1.5–3.5) 0.000   
     Chronic 2.7 (1.2–6.1) 0.022   
  SLR   0.002   
     > 60° 0.7 (0.4–1.0) 0.038   
     < 60° 1.5 (1.0–2.2) 0.085   
CT scan or MRI Sex (male)* 1.9 (1.3–3.0) 0.003 93.4 0.000
  Intensity of leg pain 1.1 (1.1–1.2) 0.001   
  Disability 1.1 (1.0–1.1) 0.000   
  Chronicity*   0.000   
     Subacute 2.7 (1.6–4.5) 0.000   
     Chronic 5.8 (2.5–13.6) 0.000   
  SLR   0.002   
     > 60° 0.7 (0.4–1.3) 0.230   
     < 60° 1.9 (1.1–3.3) 0.016   
Prescription of medication Chronicity*   0.022 18.4 0.001
     Subacute 1.5 (0.6–3.4) 0.370   
     Chronic 0.3 (0.1–0.8) 0.013   
  SLR   0.003   
     > 60° 0.5 (0.3–1.0) 0.059   
     < 60° 2.2 (0.9–5.1) 0.073   
Referral to rehabilitation or physical therapy Intensity of low back pain 1.1 (1.0–1.2) 0.015 29.5 0.000
  >3 episodes of low back pain 1.5 (1.0–2.3) 0.039   
  Chronicity*   0.006   
     Subacute 2.1 (1.3–3.4) 0.002   
     Chronic 1.9 (0.8–4.7) 0.172   
  SLR   0.018   
     > 60° 0.6 (0.4–1.1) 0.092   
     < 60° 1.4 (0.9–2.2) 0.184   
Referral to surgery (orthopedic surgery or neurosurgery) Sex (male) 2.0 (1.1–3.5) 0.023 61.6 0.000
  Intensity of leg pain 1.2 (1.1–1.3) 0.002   
  Disability 1.1 (1.0–1.2) 0.001   
  Chronicity*   0.000   
     Subacute 3.5 (1.8–6.7) 0.000   
     Chronic 9.9 (4.0–24.4) 0.000   
Sick leave* Roland-Morris 1.2 (1.1–1.2) 0.000 58.7 0.000
  Intensity of leg pain 1.1 (1.0–1.2) 0.024   
  Employed by others 2.0 (1.1–3.9) 0.031   
  1. *The variables chronicity and SLR are coded as "dummy variables", using the categories "acute" and "not done", respectively, as reference. For "sex", the reference is the "female" category. Since sick leave was only possible in workers, the models on sick leave only included the 367 workers in the study.
  2. For continuous variables, the table shows the OR of each one point increase in the corresponding scale. For dichotomous variables, the table shows the OR for each category