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Table 6 Hierarchical regression analysis of predictors of the number of physical therapy treatment sessions in patients with non-specific LBP (n = 1,733)

From: What factors explain the number of physical therapy treatment sessions in patients referred with low back pain; a multilevel analysis

   B (SE)
Intercept 9.300 (1.28)
Patient level   
Age (years) ***0.04 (0.01)
Female (ref. Male) ***1.90 (0.42)
Education level: Middle (ref. low) 0.62 (0.40)
  High (ref. low) -0.76 (0.52)
  Unknown (ref. low) -0.28 (0.42)
Health insurance: Private (ref. public) *-0.84 (0.38)
  Unknown (ref. public) 0.34 (0.42)
High urbanization rate (ref. low) 0.10 (0.53)
Complaint level   
Chronic complaints (ref. acute) ***2.27 (0.44)
Female*chronic complaints **-1.79 (0.59)
Recurrent complaint (ref. no) -0.34 (0.34)
Previous therapy (ref. no) ***1.17 (0.35)
Referral by medical specialist (ref. GP) ***4.18 (0.77)
Treatment level   
Treatment goal Maintaining body position 0.09 (0.49)
  Changing body position 0.31 (0.46)
  Functions of mobility 0.08 (0.43)
  Functions of muscles 0.32 (0.51)
  Pain 1.23 (0.64)
Interventions Massage 0.71 (0.37)
  Manual manipulation -0.38 (0.36)
  Physical modalities *1.13 (0.48)
  Exercise therapy **1.03 (0.35)
  Information/advice -0.33 (0.38)
Therapist and practice level   
Female (ref. male) *-1.23 (0.57)
Aged > 45 years (ref. < 45 years) ***-2.01 (0.51)
Manual therapist (ref. no) *-1.44 (0.60)
Patient-related working hours per week 20–40 (ref. < 20) -0.48 (0.61)
  > 40 (ref. < 20) *1.80 (0.87)
Additional training in LBP (ref. no) **-1.47 (0.51)
Additional training in LBP guideline (ref. no) 0.39 (0.47)
Feasibility LBP guideline > 7 (ref. < 7) 0.09 (0.48)
  Unknown (ref. < 7) -0.31 (0.65)
Number of LBP patients per therapist per month -0.14 (0.18)
Group practice (ref. single-handed) 0.14 (0.80)
Deviance 11,106.46
  1. * = P < 0.05; ** = P < 0.01; *** = P < 0.001