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Table 1 Prevalence of frequent and severe pain by categorical independent variables

From: Patient involvement in medical decision-making and pain among elders: physician or patient-driven?

Sociodemographics   N = 3,135 Frequent Pain % Severe Pain %
Gender Male 952 35.71 6.33
  Female 2,183 45.5 10.4
Race/Ethnicity White 2,678 42.5 8.41
  Hispanic 327 42.5 11.6
  Other 130 43.9 19.2
Education < high sch. grad. 785 45.93 13.31
  High school grad. 2,350 41.4 7.8
Marital Status Married 1,661 40.83 8.1
  Not married 1,474 44.5 10.3
Rural / urban residency Urban 1,720 43.9 9.6
  Rural, non-frontier 1,072 40.8 8.7
  Frontier 343 41.1 8.5
Income <$10,000 491 47.91 14.32
  $10–20,000 658 47.7 10.3
  $21–30,000 505 43.0 7.7
  $31,000 and higher 892 36.0 5.7
Health care     
Insurance Uninsured 93 46.2 21.51
  Medicare 917 41.8 9.2
  Medicaid 341 43.7 12.6
  Medicare+other ins. 1,498 43.4 7.9
  Other private/gov. ins 286 37.8 7.7
Tenure with doctor No personal doctor 426 37.81 10.6
  Less than 1 yr 227 44.9 9.2
  1–2 yrs 414 45.7 10.1
  3–4 yrs 454 42.3 8.4
  5 or more yrs 1,614 42.7 8.7
Health status     
No. of comorbidities 0 1,690 37.23 6.32
  1 874 47.1 10.5
  2 384 48.7 14.1
  3 or more 187 56.7 18.7
Ever diagnosed with arthritis Yes 1,988 55.01 12.82
  No 1,147 20.8 2.9
General health status Excellent 316 15.23 2.23
  Very good 720 31.1 5.6
  Good 1,040 41.0 3.1
  Fair 687 55.8 13.8
  Poor 360 69.2 29.2
  1. 1 p < 0.0001, 2 p < 0.01, 3 p < 0.05
  2. note: Analyses of severe pain were limited to those with frequent pain.
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