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Table 1 Parameters governing transition probabilities for the Markov model

From: Cost-effectiveness of recommended nurse staffing levels for short-stay skilled nursing facility patients

Parameter Base Case Biased toward recommended staffing Biased against recommended staffing Ref.
30-day hospitalization rates from SNF*     
   Congestive heart failure 3.9% [7.8%] [2.0%] [5]
   Electrolyte imbalance 4.4% [8.8%] [2.2%] [5]
   Respiratory infection 3.4% [6.8%] [1.7%] [5]
   Sepsis 1.4% [2.8%] [0.7%] [5]
   Urinary tract infection 3.0% [6.0%] [1.5%] [5]
Case fatality rates at hospital*     
   Congestive heart failure 1.2% [2.5%] [0.6%] [9]
   Electrolyte imbalance 1.7% [3.4%] [0.9%] [9]
   Respiratory infection 1.3% [2.6%] [0.7%] [9]
   Sepsis 3.1% [6.1%] [1.5%] [9]
   Urinary tract infection 1.5% [3.0%] [0.8%] [9]
Annual hazard of dying for SNF and discharged states 30.3% [15.2%] [60.6%] [10]
  1. Parameters governing transition probabilities for the Markov model are listed here. Brackets refer to assumptions made for sensitivity analyses where data were not available. Base case values represent the best available estimate of the parameter in question. Values listed under the column "biased toward recommended staffing" and "biased against recommended staffing" represent extreme values of the parameter that are most favorable and least favorable to the recommended staffing scenario when tested in sensitivity analyses. Abbreviations: SNF, skilled nursing facility; Ref., reference.
  2. *Probabilities of hospitalization for the five conditions mentioned were varied together in sensitivity analysis, as were case fatality rates.