Skip to main content

Table 6 Variations in access to health care for diabetic subjects according to smoking status. (OR, odds ratio; CI, confidence interval).

From: Cigarette smoking, health status, socio-economic status and access to health care in diabetes mellitus: a cross-sectional survey

  Never smoked Current Smokers P value Ex-smoker P Value
  Frequency (%) (968) Frequency (%) (296) OR (95% CI)   Frequency (%) (582) OR (95% CI)  
Utilisation in last 12 months:        
Hospital clinic, at least once 585/774 (76) 161/237 (68) 0.59 (0.44 to 0.79) < 0.001 387/498 (78) 1.25 (0.92 to 1.69) 0.153
GP clinic, at least once 558/663 (84) 163/207 (79) 0.78 (0.47 to 1.28) 0.321 351/428 (82) 0.91 (0.61 to 1.34) 0.624
Diabetes nurse 712 (74) 198 (67) 0.70 (0.49 to 0.99) 0.046 380 (65) 0.72 (0.56 to 0.92) 0.008
Dietician 476 (49) 139 (47) 0.99 (0.73 to 1.35) 0.946 244 (42) 0.89 (0.70 to 1.12) 0.316
Chiropodist 480 (50) 141 (48) 0.97 (0.72 to 1.31) 0.854 307 (53) 1.01 (0.74 to 1.38) 0.946
Ophthalmologist 627 (65) 156 (53) 0.70 (0.49 to 1.01) 0.054 345 (59) 0.91 (0.73 to 1.14) 0.423
Clinical Care        
Treated with insulin 231 (24) 95 (32) 1.32 (0.87 to 2.02) 0.195 150 (26) 1.24 (0.92 to 1.66) 0.156
Uses self-monitoring (blood or urine) 777 (80) 232 (78) 0.85 (0.62 to 1.15) 0.280 465 (80) 1.11 (0.86 to 1.44) 0.404
Told BP high 585 (60) 151 (51) 0.75 (0.60 to 0.93) 0.010 341 (59) 0.86 (0.69 to 1.06) 0.164
Treated for hypertension 484/585 (83) 101/151 (67) 0.47 (0.30 to 0.74) 0.001 267/341 (78) 0.73 (0.45 to 1.18) 0.204
  1. aadjusted for age, sex, ethnic group, duration of diabetes, type of diabetes, social class, car ownership, education, housing tenure and eight SF-36 scores. b53 cases with 'not known' smoking status were omitted from the analyses.