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Table 2 Summary statistics for equation 1 and 2 * comparing 56 municipalities in Tokyo and 54 municipalities in North Rhine-Westphalia (NRW)

From: Impact of a fixed price system on the supply of institutional long-term care: a comparative study of Japanese and German metropolitan areas

Variables IF in Tokyo PNH in Tokyo NRW
  Mean (Standard deviation) Mean (Standard deviation) Mean (Standard deviation)
Dependent variables       
Overall bed-densitya 34.82 (41.53) 7.48 (6.15) 47.46 (6.72)
Explanatory variables       
Costs/cost relevant       
Average facility size (beds) 92.08 (18.28) 61.41 (20.27) 77.3 (14.74)
LTA land price for T (¥1000 s)/LTA rent-level for N 382.54 ( 249.39) 336.49 (254.12) 3.11 (1.02)
LTA wage of elderly care nurse for T (¥1000 s)/LTA duration for care nurse search for Nb (days) 205.05 (8.92) 205.05 (8.92) 54.3 (15.08)
Need       
LTA percent elderlyc needing LTC 13.04 (1.97) 15.48 (1.96) 15.7 (2.07)
LTA growth rate of elderlyc needing LTC - - 8.65 (2.52) - -
Profit/political intervention (control variables)       
LTA bed-densitya of IF - - 24.14 (19.98) - -
Densitya of subsidized beds 5.71 (6.77) - - - -
Demand (control variables)       
LTA percent elderlyc 14.09 (3.86) 18.12 (4.46) 15.9 (1.59)
LTA growth rate of elderlyc 4.61 (1.83) 4.15 (1.95) 1.31 (0.67)
LTA residential tax for T (¥1000 s)/LTA disposable income for N (€1000 s) 107.38 (53.60) 107.16 (60.78) 14 (1.51)
N 54-56   47-56   54  
  1. aBed density: number of beds per 1000 elderly adults aged 65 years and over.
  2. bVacancy duration for search of skilled care: time taken for an employer to find a skilled elderly care nurse.
  3. cElderly persons: those aged 65 years and over.
  4. *Equation 1. BDi = βYi + α + e; Equation 2. BDi = βXi + βYi + βZi + α + e; BDi: overall supply in municipality i ; β: coefficients; α: constant; e: error with zero mean; X: variables for costs; Y: variables for need; Zi: control variables.