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Table 4 Relationship of health-related outcomes to the Patient Activation Measure (PAM)

From: Relationships between patient activation, disease-specific knowledge and health outcomes among people with diabetes; a survey study

  Coefficient PAM (ref: level 1) SE p-value
Life-style and self-management
Smoking status (ref: yes)
PAM level 2 -0.29 0.21 0.158
PAM level 3 0.17 0.19 0.351
PAM level 4 -0.12 0.21 0.559
Self-checking blood glucose level (ref: no)
PAM level 2 0.20 0.17 0.225
PAM level 3 0.30 0.16 0.059
PAM level 4 0.27 0.17 0.113
Self-perceived knowledge
Knowledge of type of diabetes (ref: no)
PAM level 2 0.78 0.22 <0.001
PAM level 3 0.50 0.19 0.010
PAM level 4 0.64 0.22 0.004
Knowledge about side-effects of medicines
PAM level 2 0.66 0.17 <0.001
PAM level 3 0.85 0.16 <0.001
PAM level 4 1.20 0.18 <0.001
Knowledge about what to do when blood glucose level is too high    
PAM level 2 0.33 0.14 0.022
PAM level 3 0.62 0.14 <0.001
PAM level 4 0.83 0.15 <0.001
Healthcare utilization
Blood sample to check HbA1C over 12 months ago or never (ref: within the past 12 months)
PAM level 2 -0.20 0.51 0.697
PAM level 3 0.09 0.45 0.835
PAM level 4 0.11 0.50 0.824
Blood sample to check HbA1C unknown (ref: withinthe past 12 months)
PAM level 2 -0.09 0.41 0.823
PAM level 3 0.24 0.37 0.508
PAM level 4 -0.09 0.45 0.850
Blood sample to check cholesterol level over 12 months ago or never (ref: within the past 12 months)
PAM level 2 0.09 0.29 0.767
PAM level 3 -0.04 0.29 0.896
PAM level 4 -0.09 0.32 0.784
Blood sample to check cholesterol level unknown (ref group: within the past 12 months)
PAM level 2 -0.68 0.41 0.102
PAM level 3 -0.45 0.37 0.221
PAM level 4 -0.75 0.46 0.107
Blood pressure measurement by healthcare provider over 12 months ago or never (ref: within the past 12 months)
PAM level 2 -0.77 0.56 0.174
PAM level 3 -0.46 0.49 0.346
PAM level 4 -0.32 0.50 0.524
Blood pressure measurement by healthcare provider unknown (ref: within the past 12 months)
PAM level 2 -16.00 1822.19 0.993
PAM level 3 -0.23 0.89 0.792
PAM level 4 -15.90 1734.41 0.993
Feet check by doctor over 12 months ago or never (ref: within the past 12 months)
PAM level 2 -0.44 0.20 0.025
PAM level 3 -0.29 0.18 0.105
PAM level 4 -0.58 0.21 0.005
Feet check by doctor unknown (ref: within the past 12 months)
PAM level 2 -0.27 0.64 0.669
PAM level 3 -0.12 0.58 0.838
PAM level 4 -0.83 0.74 0.262
Eye examination over 24 months ago or never (ref: within the past 24 months)
PAM level 2 -0.54 0.32 0.089
PAM level 3 -0.28 0.28 0.329
PAM level 4 -1.11 0.38 0.003
Eye examination unknown (ref: within the past 24 months)
PAM level 2 0.70 0.76 0.361
PAM level 3 -0.49 0.94 0.605
PAM level 4 -13.75 614.57 0.982
Self-reported clinical values
Level of blood glucose between 7%- 9% (ref: between 2%-7%)
PAM level 2 -0.28 0.20 0.152
PAM level 3 -0.30 0.19 0.104
PAM level 4 -0.28 0.20 0.161
Level of blood glucose between 9%- 24% (ref: between 2%-7%)
PAM level 2 -0.44 0.39 0.261
PAM level 3 -0.69 0.40 0.080
PAM level 4 -0.30 0.40 0.447
Level of blood glucose unknown (ref: between 2%-7%)
PAM level 2 -0.40 0.20 0.047
PAM level 3 -0.45 0.19 0.018
PAM level 4 -0.75 0.22 <0.001
Diastolic blood pressure 90 or higher (ref: lower than 90)
PAM level 2 -0.27 0.23 0.236
PAM level 3 -0.24 0.22 0.293
PAM level 4 -0.46 0.25 0.061
Diastolic blood pressure unknown (ref: lower than 90)
PAM level 2 -0.74 0.22 0.001
PAM level 3 -0.45 0.20 0.028
PAM level 4 -0.99 0.24 <0.001
Systolic blood pressure 140 or higher (ref: lower than 140)
PAM level 2 -0.06 0.18 0.745
PAM level 3 0.07 0.17 0.675
PAM level 4 -0.19 0.18 0.303
Systolic blood pressure unknown (ref: lower than 140)
PAM level 2 -0.66 0.24 0.006
PAM level 3 -0.47 0.22 0.034
PAM level 4 -0.72 0.25 0.004
  1. Note. Coefficients represent the results of individual linear regressions with PAM level as predictor variable for each health-related outcome while controlling for gender, age, education level, ethnicity, spoken language at home, disease duration and general health status.
  2. Ref = reference group.
  3. Bold values indicate a p-value < 0.05.