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Table 1 Intervention mapping steps, objectives and methods*

From: Improving patient discharge and reducing hospital readmissions by using Intervention Mapping

Steps Objectives Methods
1. Problem analysis ▪ Gain insight into health problem, quality of care, underlying causes and target population ▪ Problem analysis using PRECEDE-PROCEED model;
    ▪ Analysis based on:
    - Literature research
    - Individual interviews (n = 321)
    - Focus group interviews (n = 26)
    - Process maps (n = 5)
    - Artifact analyses (n = 5)
    - Ishikawa (fishbone) diagrams (n = 5)
2. Identify intervention outcomes, performance objectives and change objectives ▪ State intervention outcomes ▪ Use evidence from literature and empirical data from problem analysis (step 1)
▪ Specify performance objectives
   ▪ Select important and changeable determinants ▪ Input from experts in the field of patient handover (healthcare providers, and organizational, social and health scientists)
   ▪ Develop matrices with change objectives based on performance objectives and determinants of suboptimal hospital discharge  
3. Select theory-based methods and strategies ▪ Identify and select theoretical methods ▪ Literature search on theory-based methods
▪ Select evidence-based interventions and design of practical strategies ▪ Input from experts (n = 220)
   ▪ Ensure that interventions and strategies address change objectives  
    ▪ Systematic literature review on evidence based discharge interventions
▪ Additional search for experience based practical strategies
▪ Matching methods and practical strategies with determinants and performance objectives (step 1 and 2)
4. Develop an intervention ▪ Provide suggestions for developing an intervention ▪ Input from literature search and experts
5. Implementation ▪ Provide suggestions for writing an implementation plan ▪ Literature search of implementation strategies and tools
6. Evaluation ▪ Provide suggestions for writing an evaluation plan ▪ Literature search on methods for effect and process evaluation on complex interventions
  1. *Adapted from Bartholomew et al. [18].