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Table 1 Baseline characteristics at discharge between the control and usual care groups

From: Multidisciplinary intensive education in the hospital improves outcomes for hospitalized heart failure patients in a Japanese rural setting

  Overall (n = 277) Usual care (n = 133) Intervention (n = 144) P value
Age (years) 74 ± 13 74 ± 13 75 ± 13 0.657
Male (%) 59.6 58.6 60.4 0.764
Ischemic heart disease (%) 36.5 33.1 39.6 0.261
NYHA class III/IV (%) 10.5 9.0 11.8 0.450
Prior HF admission (%) 22.4 21.1 23.6 0.610
LVEF (%) 45.4 ± 16.0 44.9 ± 16.5 45.9 ± 16.2 0.624
HFpEF (LVEF ≥ 45 %) (%) 46.6 42.9 50.0 0.234
Vital sign     
 SBP (mmHg) 118 ± 22 117 ± 23 119 ± 21 0.586
 Heart rate (beats/min) 68 ± 12 69 ± 13 68 ± 10 0.623
Comorbidity condition     
 Hypertension (%) 58.5 52.6 63.9 0.057
 Atrial fibrillation (%) 41.9 44.4 39.6 0.421
 Diabetes (%) 37.5 38.3 36.8 0.784
 Dyslipidemia (%) 27.1 26.3 27.8 0.784
 COPD (%) 9.0 9.0 9.0 0.999
Laboratory values     
 Hemoglobin (g/dl) 11.7 ± 2.3 11.8 ± 2.3 11.6 ± 2.4 0.482
 Sodium (mEq/dl) 137.8 ± 4.0 138.0 ± 4.2 137.6 ± 3.8 0.394
 BUN (mg/dl) 34.1 ± 20.6 33.4 ± 21.1 34.8 ± 20.1 0.577
 Creatinine (mg/dl) 1.49 ± 1.19 1.48 ± 1.34 1.50 ± 1.04 0.874
 eGFR (ml/ml/1.73 m2) 48.3 ± 29.1 49.2 ± 27.4 47.5 ± 30.7 0.631
 BNP (pg/ml)* 325 ± 395 360 ± 435 306 ± 372 0.366
  1. Data are mean ± standard deviation.
  2. HF: Heart failure. NYHA: New York Heart Association. SBP: Systolic blood pressure. LVEF: Left ventricular ejection fraction. HFpEF: Heart failure with preserved EF. COPD: Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. BUN: Blood urea nitrogen. eGFR: estimated glomerular filtration rate. BNP: B-type natriuretic peptide.
  3. *available data for 191 subjects.