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Table 1 Baseline characteristics of study cohort (all data are proportions of patients unless otherwise specified)

From: Effect of telehealth on glycaemic control: analysis of patients with type 2 diabetes in the Whole Systems Demonstrator cluster randomised trial

  Control (N = 213) Intervention (N = 300) Standardised difference (variance ratio)
Site    
  Cornwall 20.2 22.3 5.2
  Kent 24.9 14.3 -26.8
  Newham 54.9 63.3 17.2
Other targeted conditions    
  COPD 11.3 16.3 14.7
  Heart failure 12.7 13.0 1.0
Age    
  Mean (SD) age in years 66.2 (11.9) 63.9 (13.0) -18.2 (1.2)
  <65 years 43.7 50.7 14.1
  65-74 years 31.0 29.7 -2.9
  75-84 years 21.1 16.3 -12.3
  > = 85 years 4.2 3.3 -4.7
Female 35.7 46.7 22.5
Ethnicity    
  White 55.4 51.7 -7.5
  Other 33.3 30.3 -6.4
  Unknown 11.3 18.0 19.1
Area-level deprivation score*    
  Mean (SD) 34.2 (13.0) 36.7 (14.4) 18.3 (1.2)
  First quartile 4.2 4.3 0.5
  Second quartile 8.0 7.0 -3.7
  Third quartile 23.9 18.7 -12.9
  Fourth quartile 63.8 70.0 13.1
Mean Combined Model score (SD)** 0.25 (0.18) 0.24 (0.19) -3.8 (1.2)
Ischemic heart disease 14.6 8.3 -19.6
Diabetes management in prior year    
  Insulin 46.5 49.7 6.4
  Sulphonylureas 41.3 40.3 -2.0
  Metformin 69.5 77.3 17.8
  Thiazolidinediones 9.4 12.3 9.5
Smoking status    
  Never 42.3 46.3 8.2
  Current 12.2 10.7 -4.8
  Ex smoker 45.5 43.0 -5.1
Latest clinical readings (mean (SD))    
  HbA1c 8.3 (1.7) 8.5 (1.8) 10.6 (1.3)
  Body-mass index (BMI)*** 30.3 (5.9) 31.8 (6.6) 24.2 (1.3)
  Cholesterol**** 4.3 (1.1) 4.3 (1.4) 2.5 (1.5)
  Systolic blood pressure 134.4 (17.6) 132.1 (19.1) -12.6 (1.2)
  Diastolic blood pressure 74.3 (10.2) 75.0 (10.3) 6.3 (1.0)
Latest HbA1c < = 7.5% 35.7 33.3 -4.9
Mean (SD) health care contacts per patient in prior year    
  Practice nurses 6.0 (7.5) 4.9 (7.7) -15.0 (1.1)
  General practitioner 8.5 (7.2) 9.2 (6.0) 10.2 (0.7)
  Elective admissions 0.5 (1.2) 0.4 (0.8) -15.7 (0.5)
  Emergency admissions 0.5 (1.1) 0.5 (1.0) -3.7 (0.7)
  Outpatient attendances 6.7 (8.9) 5.8 (6.9) -11.1 (0.6)
  Emergency department visits 0.5 (1.1) 0.7 (1.3) 16.2 (1.2)
  Hospital bed days 3.3 (6.4) 3.7 (9.3) 5.4 (2.1)
  1. SD = standard deviation.
  2. *Based on the Index of Multiple Deprivation, 2007, attributed to small areas of residence.
  3. **Combined Model score is the estimated probability of emergency hospitalization within the 12-month trial period [33].
  4. ***N = 189 (control); 245 (intervention).
  5. ****N = 212 (control); 298 (intervention).