Skip to main content

Advertisement

Table 1 Summary of the economic evaluations

From: Using QALYs in telehealth evaluations: a systematic review of methodology and transparency

Article Intervention sample size (N) Utility data Utility intervals Costing Difference in costs and QALYs Key findings (ICER and cost effectiveness results)
Barnett 2007 [25] USA Messaging and video for diabetes N = 370 SF-6D (SF-36) Baseline and 12 months Health provider, no cost information provided Difference in QALYs or costs not reported $60,940 per QALY and cost effective, 23% cost effective at $20 0000, 37% at $100,000 and 42% at a threshold of $200,000
Blankers 2012 [28] Netherland Internet therapy for harmful alcohol use N = 136 EQ-5D Baseline and 6 months Health provider and societal, comprehensive 0.06 QALYs gained, CI/p not reported, increased costs (NS) Median cost per QALY €14,710. The intervention had a 60% likelihood of being cost effective at threshold €20,000
Franzen 2009 [26] Sweden Telephone follow-up for injured road users N = 510 EQ-5D Baseline, (3)§, and 6 months Intervention costs for the health system 0.01 QALYs gained, increased costs, CI/p not reported 42,500 SEK per QALY and cost effective
Graves 2009 [31] Australia Telephone intervention for physical activity N = 431 SF-6D (SF-36) Baseline, 4 and 12 months Health provider, comprehensive QALYs gained not explicitly reported on individual level*, increased costs Telehealth vs usual care $78,489 per QALY and not cost effective. Telehealth vs real control (no follow up) $29 375 per QALY and cost-effective
Graves 2009 [32] Australia Telephone support to prevent re-hospitalisation N = 122 EQ-5D mapped from SF-12 Baseline 4, 12, and 24 weeks Health provider, comprehensive 0.118 QALYs gained (S), reduced costs NS NMB $7,907. 100% probability of increased QALYs and 64% probability of reduced costs
Handley 2008 [47] USA Telephone follow-up in diabetes care N = 226 SF-6D (SF-12) Baseline and 12 months Intervention costs for the health provider 0.012 QALYs gained, increased costs, CI/p not reported $65,167 per QALY gained and within accepted cost effective range without specification
Herbert 2008 [33] USA Telephone follow-up in heart failure N = 406 HUI3 and EQ-5D mapped from SF-12 Baseline, 3, 6, 9 and 12 months Societal and payer, comprehensive 0.0497 QALYs gained (HUI3) 0.0430 QALYs gained (EQ-5D) (S), no difference in costs $17,543 (EQ-5D) and, $15,169 (HUI3) with a 64% and 77% probabilities of cost-effectiveness
Kimman 2011 [42] Netherland Telephone follow-up after breast cancer treatment N = 299 EQ-5D Baseline, 3, 6, and 12 months Societal, comprehensive QALY gained not reported, increased costs Telephone the preferred strategy. At a threshold of €80,000, 62% probability of being cost effective
Moss-Morris 2012 [27] UK Internet and telephone follow-up for fatigue N = 40 EQ-5D Baseline and 10 weeks Health provider 0.015 QALYs gained (S), no difference in costs The intervention is cost-effective
Neelemaat 2012 [43] Netherland Telephone support to malnourished elderly N = 210 EQ-5D Baseline and 3 months Societal, comprehensive 0.02 QALYs gained (NS), increased costs €26,962 per QALY. For thresholds at €20 000 the probability of cost effectiveness is 50%
Pyne 2010 [34] USA Video-link and telephone support for depression N = 335 SF-6D (SF-12) QWB Baseline, 6 and 12 months Health provider and patient, comprehensive QWB 0.015 QALYs gained (NS), SF-6D 0.018 QALYs gained (S), increased costs $85,634 per QALY (health provider), $132,175 per QALY (incl. patient costs) Not cost-effective
Smith 2008 [35] USA Monitoring in heart failure N = 1069 SF-6D (SF-36) Not reported Health provider Difference in QALYs not reported, increased costs $146,870 per QALY, Not cost-effective
van der Meer 2011 [45] Netherland Internet intervention for asthma N = 200 EQ-5D Baseline, 3, and 12 months Societal, comprehensive 0.024 QALYs gained (NS), no difference in costs $26,700 per QALY, 62% probability of cost-effective at threshold of $50,000
van Keulen 2010 [44] Netherland Intervention to motivate patients with hypertension N = 1629 SF-6D (SF-36) Baseline and 7 months Intervention cost and time costs for the participants 0.02 QALYs gained (S) Telephone most costly Control group most cost effective for ceiling ratios lower than $2851 per QALY
Van Wier 2012 [46] Netherland Telephone and e-mail advice for overweight N = 1386 EQ-5D Baseline, 6, 12, 18 and 24 months Societal, comprehensive Phone 0.001 and Internet 0.01 QALYs gained NS, no difference in costs Internet €1337 per QALY and not cost-effective. Phone €245,000 per QALY. Cost effective at WTP €20,000; 8% for Phone, 60% for Internet and 32% for control
Willems 2007 [29] Netherland Home monitoring of asthmatics N = 109 SF-6D (SF-36) EQ-5D Baseline, 4, 8 and 12 months Societal, comprehensive Adults 0.03 and children 0.01 QALYs gained (EQ-5D) (S), increased costs (NS) €31,000 per QALY gained for adults and €59, 000/QALY gained for the children. Limited cost-effectiveness
Yardly 2012 [30] UK Telephone support for dizziness N = 236 EQ-5D Baseline, 3 and 12 months Health provider 0.022 QALYs gained, Increased costs, CI/p not reported £1363 per QALY, Intervention is cost effective
  1. NS = not significant, S = significant, CI = confidence interval, p = p-value, NMB = net monetary benefit.
  2. *This evaluation study reported mean QALYs gained from 2.45 to 9.44 for 100 individuals.
  3. §Intervention group only.