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Table 4 Changes in the dimensions within each hospital by occupation

From: The patient safety culture as perceived by staff at two different emergency departments before and after introducing a flow-oriented working model with team triage and lean principles: a repeated cross-sectional study

Dimension County hospital University hospital
Base-line Follow-up Change P-value Base-line Follow-up Change P-value
Target group N 129 N 149    N 55 N 54   
Physicians’ responses n 86 n 96    n 25 n 37   
  % % а   % % а  
1. Non-punitive response to error 33.3 36.0   NS 49.7 43.2   NS
2. Staffing 28.3 28.1   NS 62.9 48.6 - *
3. Frequency of event reporting 19.9 22.8   NS 23.0 15.0   NS
4. Hospital management support for patient safety 15.8 20.2   NS 42.0 41.8   NS
5. Team-work across hospital units 29.9 32.5   NS 29.8 42.8 + *
6. Hospital hand-off and transition 29.8 33.3   NS 44.9 42.6   NS
7. Information and support to patients at adverse events 43.7 46.2   NS 40.2 33.3   NS
8. Information and support to staff at adverse events 32.4 29.3   NS 32.5 32.2   NS
9. Overall perception of safety 25.1 32.5 + * 54.2 49.3   NS
11. Organizational learning-continuous improvement 28.0 37.3 + * 55.3 61.1   NS
12. Team work within hospital 50.3 65.3 + *** 79.6 77.6   NS
13. Communication openness 55.3 56.8   NS 76.4 66.4   NS
14. Feedback and communication about error 34.8 42.4   NS 54.0 46.8   NS
15. Patient safety grade 73.3 66.3   NS 91.7 88.9   NS
Target group N 108 N 114    N 125 N 125   
Registered nurses’ + assistant nurses’ responses n 86 n 85    n 93 n 112   
  % %    % %   
1. Non-punitive response to error 30.3 27.4   NS 47.9 42.9   NS
2. Staffing 25.2 20.8   NS 49.2 44.9   NS
3. Frequency of event reporting 24.0 24.5   NS 28.6 16.4 - **
4. Hospital management support for patient safety 11.6 11.6   NS 35.3 32.1   NS
5. Team work across hospital units 32.8 22.6 - ** 36.1 43.0   NS
6. Hospital hand-off and transition 39.4 32.5   NS 47.4 48.1   NS
7. Information and support to patients at adverse events 45.8 34.2 - ** 48.3 32.6 - ***
8. Information and support to staff at adverse events 42.6 30.1 - * 26.7 31.5   NS
9. Overall perception of safety 23.4 21.3   NS 42.0 39.0   NS
10. Safety culture dimension unit level 40.5 52.3 + ** 56.5 52.7   NS
11. Organizational learning-continuous improvement 46.1 34.5 - ** 46.6 50.0   NS
12. Team- work within hospital 63.7 61.0   NS 69.6 81.0 + ***
13. Communication openness 47.1 59.1 + ** 63.0 60.2   NS
14. Feedback and communication about error 56.7 58.3   NS 47.5 45.7   NS
15. Patient safety grade 50.1 46.2   NS 90.9 79.6 - *
  1. а Direction of the change from baseline measurement to follow-up . *** = p < 0.001, ** = p < 0.01, * = p < 0.05, NS = not significant. An index of < 50 is considered low and should lead to action, 51 - 69 suggests potential for improvement, and ≥ 70 indicates that the unit is functioning well.
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